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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Brown-Forman Corp was -1.98. The lowest was -2.93. And the median was -2.45.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Brown-Forman Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9722||+||0.528 * 1.0038||+||0.404 * 0.9811||+||0.892 * 0.9863||+||0.115 * 0.9793|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9889||+||4.679 * 0.1301||-||0.327 * 1.1895|
|This Year (Apr16) TTM:||Last Year (Apr15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $559 Mil.|
Revenue was 729 + 809 + 854 + 699 = $3,091 Mil.
Gross Profit was 513 + 555 + 586 + 491 = $2,145 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,233 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,183 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $629 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $56 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,105 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $791 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,230 Mil.
Net Income was 522 + 190 + 200 + 156 = $1,068 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 76 + 287 + 14 + 147 = $524 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $583 Mil.
Revenue was 739 + 813 + 877 + 705 = $3,134 Mil.
Gross Profit was 526 + 553 + 609 + 495 = $2,183 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,254 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,188 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $586 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $51 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,133 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $958 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $743 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(559 / 3091)||/||(583 / 3134)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2183 / 3134)||/||(2145 / 3091)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2233 + 629) / 4183)||/||(1 - (2254 + 586) / 4188)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(51 / (51 + 586))||/||(56 / (56 + 629))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1105 / 3091)||/||(1133 / 3134)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1230 + 791) / 4183)||/||((743 + 958) / 4188)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1068 - 0||-||524)||/||4183|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Brown-Forman Corp has a M-score of -1.98 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Brown-Forman Corp Annual Data
Brown-Forman Corp Quarterly Data