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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of BHP Billiton Ltd was -1.85. The lowest was -12.64. And the median was -2.78.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of BHP Billiton Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0794||+||0.528 * 1.0718||+||0.404 * 1.2788||+||0.892 * 0.6925||+||0.115 * 0.9489|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0754||+||4.679 * -0.1404||-||0.327 * 1.1316|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,722 Mil.|
Revenue was $30,912 Mil.
Gross Profit was $22,261 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $17,714 Mil.
Total Assets was $118,953 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $83,975 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $8,661 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,702 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,340 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $31,768 Mil.
Net Income was $-6,385 Mil.
Non Operating Income was $-313 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $10,625 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,979 Mil.
Revenue was $44,636 Mil.
Gross Profit was $34,452 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $16,369 Mil.
Total Assets was $124,580 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $94,072 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $9,158 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $4,971 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,853 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $27,969 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3722 / 30912)||/||(4979 / 44636)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(34452 / 44636)||/||(22261 / 30912)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (17714 + 83975) / 118953)||/||(1 - (16369 + 94072) / 124580)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(9158 / (9158 + 94072))||/||(8661 / (8661 + 83975))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(3702 / 30912)||/||(4971 / 44636)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((31768 + 12340) / 118953)||/||((27969 + 12853) / 124580)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-6385 - -313||-||10625)||/||118953|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
BHP Billiton Ltd has a M-score of -3.25 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
BHP Billiton Ltd Annual Data