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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Big Lots Inc was 5.89. The lowest was -3.99. And the median was -2.75.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Big Lots Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 0.9799||+||0.404 * 1.1613||+||0.892 * 1.0072||+||0.115 * 0.9705|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0135||+||4.679 * -0.0975||-||0.327 * 1.0202|
|This Year (Apr15) TTM:||Last Year (Apr14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 1280.455 + 1593.349 + 1107.095 + 1195.363 = $5,176 Mil.
Gross Profit was 504.116 + 649.929 + 430.942 + 469.527 = $2,055 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,022 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,649 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $567 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $108 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,702 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $612 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $41 Mil.
Net Income was 32.213 + 94.431 + -3.441 + 19.938 = $143 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.028 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 87.525 + 256.184 + -94.791 + 55.003 = $304 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 1281.271 + 1571.912 + 1104.918 + 1180.905 = $5,139 Mil.
Gross Profit was 493.556 + 609.631 + 431.428 + 464.115 = $1,999 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,049 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,659 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $558 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $103 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,668 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $590 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $54 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 5176.262)||/||(0 / 5139.006)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(649.929 / 5139.006)||/||(504.116 / 5176.262)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1021.519 + 566.939) / 1648.812)||/||(1 - (1049.093 + 557.675) / 1659.062)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(102.882 / (102.882 + 557.675))||/||(108.377 / (108.377 + 566.939))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1702.464 / 5176.262)||/||(1667.675 / 5139.006)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((40.5 + 612.313) / 1648.812)||/||((53.6 + 590.253) / 1659.062)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(143.141 - 0.028||-||303.921)||/||1648.812|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Big Lots Inc has a M-score of -2.89 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Big Lots Inc Annual Data
Big Lots Inc Quarterly Data