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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 9 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Bridgepoint Education Inc was -1.46. The lowest was -3.44. And the median was -2.44.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Bridgepoint Education Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.2231||+||0.528 * 1.0365||+||0.404 * 0.8177||+||0.892 * 0.8897||+||0.115 * 0.8809|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9945||+||4.679 * -0.0829||-||0.327 * 0.9656|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $28.2 Mil.|
Revenue was 147.057 + 142.518 + 147.259 + 162.654 = $599.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 75.647 + 67.469 + 65.588 + 82.947 = $291.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $379.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $562.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $71.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $22.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $279.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $159.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was -0.65 + -0.371 + -5.248 + 6.291 = $0.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.345 + 0.689 + 0.725 + 1.08 = $2.8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 7.38 + 7.388 + 0.635 + 28.425 = $43.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $25.9 Mil.
Revenue was 171.522 + 157.27 + 162.225 + 182.768 = $673.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 94.669 + 74.189 + 71.684 + 99.206 = $339.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $331.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $555.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $88.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $23.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $315.5 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $163.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(28.164 / 599.488)||/||(25.881 / 673.785)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(67.469 / 673.785)||/||(75.647 / 599.488)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (379.2 + 71.068) / 562.548)||/||(1 - (331.193 + 88.694) / 555.474)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(23.3 / (23.3 + 88.694))||/||(21.974 / (21.974 + 71.068))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(279.19 / 599.488)||/||(315.538 / 673.785)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 159.366) / 562.548)||/||((0 + 162.964) / 555.474)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(0.022 - 2.839||-||43.828)||/||562.548|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Bridgepoint Education Inc has a M-score of -2.82 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Bridgepoint Education Inc Annual Data
Bridgepoint Education Inc Quarterly Data