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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Broadcom Corp was -1.28. The lowest was -5.97. And the median was -2.89.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Broadcom Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1147||+||0.528 * 0.9477||+||0.404 * 1.0273||+||0.892 * 1.0391||+||0.115 * 1.2691|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9544||+||4.679 * -0.0614||-||0.327 * 0.9668|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $922 Mil.|
Revenue was 2096 + 2058 + 2143 + 2260 = $8,557 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1157 + 1086 + 1131 + 1183 = $4,557 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,863 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,990 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $626 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $330 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $714 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,546 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,594 Mil.
Net Income was 386 + 209 + 390 + 98 = $1,083 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -5 + 0 + 5 + 9 = $9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 802 + -25 + 633 + 461 = $1,871 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $796 Mil.
Revenue was 2041 + 1984 + 2064 + 2146 = $8,235 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1036 + 980 + 1038 + 1102 = $4,156 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,702 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,971 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $540 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $421 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $720 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,395 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(922 / 8557)||/||(796 / 8235)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1086 / 8235)||/||(1157 / 8557)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4863 + 626) / 12990)||/||(1 - (4702 + 540) / 11971)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(421 / (421 + 540))||/||(330 / (330 + 626))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(714 / 8557)||/||(720 / 8235)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1594 + 1546) / 12990)||/||((1395 + 1598) / 11971)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1083 - 9||-||1871)||/||12990|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Broadcom Corp has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Broadcom Corp Annual Data
Broadcom Corp Quarterly Data