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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of BioTime Inc was -0.28. The lowest was -10.09. And the median was -3.39.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of BioTime Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8629||+||0.528 * 0.9968||+||0.404 * 0.7962||+||0.892 * 1.3425||+||0.115 * 1.6348|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.236||+||4.679 * -0.06||-||0.327 * 1.4402|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1.65 Mil.|
Revenue was 1.461 + 2.306 + 2.009 + 1.264 = $7.04 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.311 + 1.874 + 1.749 + 1 = $5.93 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $47.24 Mil.
Total Assets was $94.66 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $7.54 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $6.33 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $29.13 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12.46 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.57 Mil.
Net Income was -13.424 + -13.626 + -9.691 + -10.167 = $-46.91 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 3.907 + -0.573 + 0.225 + -0.239 = $3.32 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -13.947 + -11.561 + -9.967 + -9.069 = $-44.54 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1.42 Mil.
Revenue was 1.879 + 1.191 + 1.107 + 1.067 = $5.24 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.656 + 0.96 + 0.855 + 0.935 = $4.41 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $32.41 Mil.
Total Assets was $74.90 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.86 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $8.41 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $17.56 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7.07 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.09 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1.645 / 7.04)||/||(1.42 / 5.244)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1.874 / 5.244)||/||(1.311 / 7.04)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (47.237 + 7.539) / 94.66)||/||(1 - (32.405 + 2.858) / 74.901)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(8.411 / (8.411 + 2.858))||/||(6.334 / (6.334 + 7.539))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(29.133 / 7.04)||/||(17.557 / 5.244)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0.57 + 12.462) / 94.66)||/||((0.091 + 7.069) / 74.901)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-46.908 - 3.32||-||-44.544)||/||94.66|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
BioTime Inc has a M-score of -2.78 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
BioTime Inc Annual Data
BioTime Inc Quarterly Data