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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of BroadVision Inc was 9.93. The lowest was -12.97. And the median was -2.58.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of BroadVision Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.7667||+||0.528 * 1.055||+||0.404 * 0.9572||+||0.892 * 0.695||+||0.115 * 0.9448|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.3242||+||4.679 * -0.0447||-||0.327 * 1.3807|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1.75 Mil.|
Revenue was 2.677 + 2.082 + 2.187 + 2.496 = $9.44 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.501 + 1.384 + 1.33 + 1.734 = $5.95 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $31.98 Mil.
Total Assets was $32.21 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.09 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.08 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8.39 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.78 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -2.748 + -2.067 + -2.496 + -3.555 = $-10.87 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.331 + 0.375 + 0.131 + -1.399 = $-1.22 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -3.189 + -2.863 + -1.104 + -1.045 = $-8.20 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3.29 Mil.
Revenue was 4.306 + 3.125 + 3.16 + 2.994 = $13.59 Mil.
Gross Profit was 3.267 + 2.021 + 1.782 + 1.96 = $9.03 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $41.48 Mil.
Total Assets was $41.83 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.15 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.12 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9.12 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.44 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1.751 / 9.442)||/||(3.286 / 13.585)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1.384 / 13.585)||/||(1.501 / 9.442)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (31.98 + 0.087) / 32.21)||/||(1 - (41.484 + 0.148) / 41.826)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(0.118 / (0.118 + 0.148))||/||(0.077 / (0.077 + 0.087))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(8.39 / 9.442)||/||(9.116 / 13.585)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 5.783) / 32.21)||/||((0 + 5.439) / 41.826)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-10.866 - -1.224||-||-8.201)||/||32.21|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
BroadVision Inc has a M-score of -3.35 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
BroadVision Inc Annual Data
BroadVision Inc Quarterly Data