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BroadVision Inc (NAS:BVSN)
Beneish M-Score
-2.12 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

BroadVision Inc has a M-score of -2.12 signals that the company is a manipulator.

BVSN' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -13.01   Max: 18.81
Current: -2.12

-13.01
18.81

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of BroadVision Inc was 18.81. The lowest was -13.01. And the median was -2.56.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of BroadVision Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.4753+0.528 * 1.2346+0.404 * 1.1213+0.892 * 0.7731+0.115 * 1.2525
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.243+4.679 * 0.0073-0.327 * 1.2209
=-2.12

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Sep16) TTM:Last Year (Sep15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $0.93 Mil.
Revenue was 1.951 + 1.922 + 2.009 + 2.677 = $8.56 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.059 + 1.072 + 1.199 + 1.501 = $4.83 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $23.95 Mil.
Total Assets was $24.17 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.07 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.04 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8.10 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4.42 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was -2.442 + -2.603 + -2.051 + -3.319 = $-10.42 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.032 + 0.079 + 0.639 + -0.931 = $-0.18 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -3.154 + -2.319 + -1.748 + -3.189 = $-10.41 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $0.81 Mil.
Revenue was 2.082 + 2.187 + 2.496 + 4.306 = $11.07 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1.384 + 1.33 + 1.734 + 3.267 = $7.72 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $34.53 Mil.
Total Assets was $34.82 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.10 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.09 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $8.43 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.21 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(0.925 / 8.559) / (0.811 / 11.071)
=0.10807337 / 0.07325445
=1.4753

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(7.715 / 11.071) / (4.831 / 8.559)
=0.69686569 / 0.5644351
=1.2346

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (23.952 + 0.068) / 24.171) / (1 - (34.531 + 0.096) / 34.821)
=0.00624716 / 0.00557135
=1.1213

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=8.559 / 11.071
=0.7731

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(0.093 / (0.093 + 0.096)) / (0.044 / (0.044 + 0.068))
=0.49206349 / 0.39285714
=1.2525

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(8.099 / 8.559) / (8.428 / 11.071)
=0.9462554 / 0.76126818
=1.243

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((0 + 4.418) / 24.171) / ((0 + 5.213) / 34.821)
=0.18278102 / 0.14970851
=1.2209

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(-10.415 - -0.181 - -10.41) / 24.171
=0.0073

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

BroadVision Inc has a M-score of -2.12 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

BroadVision Inc Annual Data

Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14Dec15
DSRI 0.92470.7831.49431.0080.8551.19141.13730.85261.0680.7667
GMI 0.84170.92131.09060.99481.06621.07810.98230.97051.03751.055
AQI 0.61180.85270.0710.90891.01820.1221.50761.06721.22130.9572
SGI 0.86470.96220.71780.86240.70470.80460.86171.03130.87090.695
DEPI 1.48240.94451.38411.2540.88190.7391.87460.77610.80340.9448
SGAI 0.75060.89921.371.01711.32061.06551.15080.93281.10561.3242
LVGI 0.35530.63411.15830.71830.82510.98580.92550.92010.90481.3807
TATA -0.00770.0405-0.38160.0402-0.01650.0225-0.01570.01020.0592-0.0438
M-score -2.64-2.49-4.46-2.33-2.92-2.72-2.26-2.52-2.16-3.35

BroadVision Inc Quarterly Data

Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15Mar16Jun16Sep16
DSRI 1.02411.06731.0680.85720.48570.43710.76670.74341.56571.4753
GMI 1.07481.0931.03751.01540.93140.90781.0551.11271.1621.2346
AQI 1.15761.20771.22131.27431.19351.1870.95720.97481.08211.1213
SGI 0.88510.81390.87090.88730.87590.85220.6950.68430.71740.7731
DEPI 0.85560.85720.80340.74310.72450.82410.94481.09791.24691.2525
SGAI 1.06031.14671.10561.03211.07241.08171.32421.43791.36351.243
LVGI 1.06821.02730.90480.98141.07941.12531.38071.15931.1881.2209
TATA -0.02510.01450.05920.0720.0407-0.0119-0.0438-0.0419-0.0030.0073
M-score -2.62-2.43-2.16-2.29-2.90-3.23-3.35-3.26-2.20-2.12
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