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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Boston Properties Inc was 0.46. The lowest was -3.34. And the median was -2.42.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Boston Properties Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9234||+||0.528 * 0.997||+||0.404 * 2.0956||+||0.892 * 1.0241||+||0.115 * 0.9451|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0769||+||4.679 * -0.0315||-||0.327 * 1.0211|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $93 Mil.|
Revenue was 636.061 + 625.228 + 623.546 + 665.985 = $2,551 Mil.
Gross Profit was 404.227 + 388.55 + 397.63 + 439.179 = $1,630 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,022 Mil.
Total Assets was $18,852 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $15,925 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $694 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $108 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,160 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $9,309 Mil.
Net Income was 149.875 + 79.342 + 99.186 + 184.365 = $513 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 62.515 + 1.929 + 2.712 + 2.05 = $69 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 293.089 + 159.634 + 235.171 + 348.98 = $1,037 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $98 Mil.
Revenue was 624.24 + 629.884 + 618.221 + 618.476 = $2,491 Mil.
Gross Profit was 399.71 + 401.963 + 395.262 + 389.55 = $1,586 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,376 Mil.
Total Assets was $18,351 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $15,556 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $640 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $98 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,281 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $8,700 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(92.548 / 2550.82)||/||(97.865 / 2490.821)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1586.485 / 2490.821)||/||(1629.586 / 2550.82)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2021.751 + 15925.028) / 18851.643)||/||(1 - (2375.503 + 15555.641) / 18351.486)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(639.542 / (639.542 + 15555.641))||/||(694.403 / (694.403 + 15925.028))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(107.616 / 2550.82)||/||(97.578 / 2490.821)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((9309.04 + 1159.858) / 18851.643)||/||((8700.061 + 1280.897) / 18351.486)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(512.768 - 69.206||-||1036.874)||/||18851.643|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Boston Properties Inc has a M-score of -2.26 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Boston Properties Inc Annual Data
Boston Properties Inc Quarterly Data