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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cheesecake Factory Inc was 5.96. The lowest was -143.74. And the median was -2.89.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cheesecake Factory Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9748||+||0.528 * 0.934||+||0.404 * 0.9968||+||0.892 * 1.0612||+||0.115 * 1.0388|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9875||+||4.679 * -0.1042||-||0.327 * 0.8979|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $13 Mil.|
Revenue was 553.693 + 526.841 + 526.688 + 529.107 = $2,136 Mil.
Gross Profit was 107.705 + 103.494 + 100.555 + 110.314 = $422 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $190 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,193 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $886 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $86 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $138 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $306 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 33.954 + 27.2 + 26.176 + 34.724 = $122 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 76.308 + 74.337 + 40.12 + 55.618 = $246 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $13 Mil.
Revenue was 517.973 + 499.673 + 499.114 + 496.406 = $2,013 Mil.
Gross Profit was 96.757 + 90.629 + 88.712 + 95.385 = $371 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $189 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,129 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $829 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $84 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $132 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $298 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $25 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(13.079 / 2136.329)||/||(12.643 / 2013.166)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(371.483 / 2013.166)||/||(422.068 / 2136.329)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (189.79 + 885.964) / 1192.651)||/||(1 - (188.776 + 828.966) / 1128.726)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(83.761 / (83.761 + 828.966))||/||(85.85 / (85.85 + 885.964))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(138.213 / 2136.329)||/||(131.892 / 2013.166)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 306.22) / 1192.651)||/||((25 + 297.775) / 1128.726)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(122.054 - 0||-||246.383)||/||1192.651|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cheesecake Factory Inc has a M-score of -2.93 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cheesecake Factory Inc Annual Data
Cheesecake Factory Inc Quarterly Data