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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cal-Maine Foods Inc was -1.04. The lowest was -3.15. And the median was -2.63.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cal-Maine Foods Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8008||+||0.528 * 0.685||+||0.404 * 1.2082||+||0.892 * 1.3003||+||0.115 * 1.005|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9445||+||4.679 * -0.0392||-||0.327 * 0.6649|
|This Year (Feb16) TTM:||Last Year (Feb15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $111 Mil.|
Revenue was 449.76 + 545.975 + 609.895 + 403.011 = $2,009 Mil.
Gross Profit was 132.726 + 211.597 + 263.071 + 109.394 = $717 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $654 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,124 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $382 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $44 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $154 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $128 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $21 Mil.
Net Income was 64.164 + 109.23 + 143.023 + 46.114 = $363 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 10.367 + 1.234 + 0.522 + 2.782 = $15 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 32.268 + 146.337 + 154.115 + 58.976 = $392 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $106 Mil.
Revenue was 437.556 + 378.617 + 356.944 + 371.582 = $1,545 Mil.
Gross Profit was 112.517 + 92.709 + 81.101 + 91.291 = $378 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $494 Mil.
Total Assets was $901 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $349 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $40 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $125 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $136 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $43 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(110.765 / 2008.641)||/||(106.368 / 1544.699)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(211.597 / 1544.699)||/||(132.726 / 2008.641)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (654.268 + 382.271) / 1124.232)||/||(1 - (493.816 + 348.782) / 900.749)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(40.086 / (40.086 + 348.782))||/||(43.692 / (43.692 + 382.271))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(153.699 / 2008.641)||/||(125.144 / 1544.699)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((21.081 + 127.627) / 1124.232)||/||((43.32 + 135.887) / 900.749)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(362.531 - 14.905||-||391.696)||/||1124.232|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cal-Maine Foods Inc has a M-score of -2.54 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cal-Maine Foods Inc Annual Data
Cal-Maine Foods Inc Quarterly Data