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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Crown Castle International Corp was -1.27. The lowest was -5.32. And the median was -2.43.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Crown Castle International Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9645||+||0.528 * 0.9859||+||0.404 * 1.0122||+||0.892 * 1.0368||+||0.115 * 1.0132|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.158||+||4.679 * -0.0129||-||0.327 * 0.979|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $313 Mil.|
Revenue was 945.836 + 918.107 + 899.437 + 941.001 = $3,704 Mil.
Gross Profit was 603.831 + 584.248 + 573.006 + 611.143 = $2,372 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $981 Mil.
Total Assets was $22,036 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $9,580 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,036 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $316 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $855 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $12,143 Mil.
Net Income was 141.066 + 103.779 + 1153.36 + 122.787 = $1,521 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -11.019 + -9.804 + 43.724 + -12.459 = $10 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 503.149 + 371.998 + 458.084 + 460.794 = $1,794 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $313 Mil.
Revenue was 925.868 + 892.883 + 878.242 + 875.95 = $3,573 Mil.
Gross Profit was 571.051 + 560.47 + 549.309 + 575 = $2,256 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,283 Mil.
Total Assets was $21,143 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,983 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $986 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $264 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $932 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $11,808 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(313.296 / 3704.381)||/||(313.308 / 3572.943)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(584.248 / 3572.943)||/||(603.831 / 3704.381)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (981.245 + 9580.057) / 22036.245)||/||(1 - (1282.996 + 8982.783) / 21143.276)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(985.781 / (985.781 + 8982.783))||/||(1036.178 / (1036.178 + 9580.057))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(316.352 / 3704.381)||/||(263.504 / 3572.943)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((12143.019 + 855.369) / 22036.245)||/||((11807.526 + 932.131) / 21143.276)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1520.992 - 10.442||-||1794.025)||/||22036.245|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Crown Castle International Corp has a M-score of -2.56 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Crown Castle International Corp Annual Data
Crown Castle International Corp Quarterly Data