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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Cerner Corp has a M-score of -2.70 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cerner Corp was -1.75. The lowest was -4.33. And the median was -2.75.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cerner Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9879||+||0.528 * 0.9491||+||0.404 * 0.8983||+||0.892 * 1.1151||+||0.115 * 1.1191|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1459||+||4.679 * -0.0551||-||0.327 * 0.9092|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $564 Mil.|
Revenue was 784.761 + 795.328 + 727.83 + 707.561 = $3,015 Mil.
Gross Profit was 655.662 + 653.212 + 608.253 + 581.761 = $2,499 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,915 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,191 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $845 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $274 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,552 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $612 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $105 Mil.
Net Income was 119.526 + 60.063 + 115.344 + 112.907 = $408 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 2.99 + -8.332 + 3.509 + 2.733 = $1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 155.787 + 141.48 + 164.23 + 176.507 = $638 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $512 Mil.
Revenue was 680.029 + 710.384 + 676.482 + 637.358 = $2,704 Mil.
Gross Profit was 552.8 + 557.273 + 526.904 + 489.858 = $2,127 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,728 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,765 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $606 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $229 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,215 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $572 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $135 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(564.086 / 3015.48)||/||(512.078 / 2704.253)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(653.212 / 2704.253)||/||(655.662 / 3015.48)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1915.181 + 845.104) / 4191.348)||/||(1 - (1727.56 + 606.449) / 3765.149)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(229.132 / (229.132 + 606.449))||/||(274.291 / (274.291 + 845.104))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1552.174 / 3015.48)||/||(1214.755 / 2704.253)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((104.827 + 611.667) / 4191.348)||/||((135.47 + 572.423) / 3765.149)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(407.84 - 0.9||-||638.004)||/||4191.348|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cerner Corp has a M-score of -2.70 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cerner Corp Annual Data
Cerner Corp Quarterly Data