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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cerner Corp was -1.75. The lowest was -4.33. And the median was -2.75.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cerner Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8231||+||0.528 * 0.9907||+||0.404 * 0.9343||+||0.892 * 1.1978||+||0.115 * 0.9731|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9997||+||4.679 * -0.1006||-||0.327 * 0.9604|
|This Year (Jun16) TTM:||Last Year (Jun15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $945 Mil.|
Revenue was 1215.962 + 1138.135 + 1175.294 + 1127.887 = $4,657 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1010.406 + 962.542 + 976.078 + 937.304 = $3,886 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,934 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,780 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,438 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $483 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,350 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $815 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $546 Mil.
Net Income was 166.454 + 150.36 + 166.108 + 147.282 = $630 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 2.47 + 1.681 + 0.798 + 0.317 = $5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 254.942 + 327.083 + 353.095 + 271.52 = $1,207 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $958 Mil.
Revenue was 1125.997 + 996.089 + 926.031 + 840.149 = $3,888 Mil.
Gross Profit was 933.675 + 827.429 + 753.187 + 700.084 = $3,214 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,884 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,485 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,155 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $374 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,963 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $778 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $567 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(944.875 / 4657.278)||/||(958.371 / 3888.266)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3214.375 / 3888.266)||/||(3886.33 / 4657.278)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1933.708 + 1437.825) / 5779.551)||/||(1 - (1883.707 + 1155.153) / 5484.833)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(374.06 / (374.06 + 1155.153))||/||(482.808 / (482.808 + 1437.825))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2350.304 / 4657.278)||/||(1962.842 / 3888.266)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((546.174 + 815.093) / 5779.551)||/||((567.312 + 777.851) / 5484.833)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(630.204 - 5.266||-||1206.64)||/||5779.551|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cerner Corp has a M-score of -2.96 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cerner Corp Annual Data
Cerner Corp Quarterly Data