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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cerner Corp was -1.75. The lowest was -4.33. And the median was -2.75.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cerner Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.832||+||0.528 * 0.9862||+||0.404 * 0.9072||+||0.892 * 1.1288||+||0.115 * 1.0308|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9885||+||4.679 * -0.0886||-||0.327 * 0.8968|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $951 Mil.|
Revenue was 1184.557 + 1215.962 + 1138.135 + 1175.294 = $4,714 Mil.
Gross Profit was 1001.587 + 1010.406 + 962.542 + 976.078 = $3,951 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,998 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,949 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,476 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $495 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,385 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $828 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $536 Mil.
Net Income was 169.979 + 166.454 + 150.36 + 166.108 = $653 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.417 + 2.47 + 1.681 + 0.798 = $5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 240.349 + 254.942 + 327.083 + 353.095 = $1,175 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,012 Mil.
Revenue was 1127.887 + 1125.997 + 996.089 + 926.031 = $4,176 Mil.
Gross Profit was 937.304 + 933.675 + 827.429 + 753.187 = $3,452 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,804 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,523 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,187 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $414 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,138 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $839 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $573 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(950.549 / 4713.948)||/||(1012.146 / 4176.004)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(3451.595 / 4176.004)||/||(3950.613 / 4713.948)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1998.315 + 1476.126) / 5948.527)||/||(1 - (1803.762 + 1187.114) / 5522.925)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(414.216 / (414.216 + 1187.114))||/||(494.535 / (494.535 + 1476.126))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2385.46 / 4713.948)||/||(2137.797 / 4176.004)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((535.92 + 828.06) / 5948.527)||/||((572.828 + 839.335) / 5522.925)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(652.901 - 4.532||-||1175.469)||/||5948.527|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cerner Corp has a M-score of -2.94 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cerner Corp Annual Data
Cerner Corp Quarterly Data