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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd was 0.00. The lowest was 0.00. And the median was 0.00.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $206 Mil.|
Revenue was $2,770 Mil.
Gross Profit was $1,741 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $15,115 Mil.
Total Assets was $55,305 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,287 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $42 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,995 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,088 Mil.
Net Income was $4,639 Mil.
Non Operating Income was $2,018 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was $915 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $169 Mil.
Revenue was $2,759 Mil.
Gross Profit was $1,493 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $13,464 Mil.
Total Assets was $52,481 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,309 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $44 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,605 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5,549 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(206.3451122 / 2770.18313129)||/||(168.774193548 / 2758.58064516)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||( / 2758.58064516)||/||( / 2770.18313129)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (15115.4242971 + 1286.69074026) / 55305.2618004)||/||(1 - (13463.8709677 + 1309.03225806) / 52480.6451613)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(43.8709677419 / (43.8709677419 + 1309.03225806))||/||(41.9138509157 / (41.9138509157 + 1286.69074026))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 2770.18313129)||/||(0 / 2758.58064516)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5087.95460408 + 1994.5834408) / 55305.2618004)||/||((5548.51612903 + 2605.03225806) / 52480.6451613)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(4639.15398504 - 2018.18416301||-||915.140572608)||/||55305.2618004|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd Annual Data