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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of C.H. Robinson Worldwide Inc was 0.58. The lowest was -3.06. And the median was -2.42.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of C.H. Robinson Worldwide Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9114||+||0.528 * 0.8747||+||0.404 * 1.0378||+||0.892 * 0.9722||+||0.115 * 0.9216|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1307||+||4.679 * -0.0632||-||0.327 * 0.9107|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,463 Mil.|
Revenue was 3073.943 + 3210.853 + 3419.253 + 3545.088 = $13,249 Mil.
Gross Profit was 563.335 + 570.777 + 588.575 + 584.018 = $2,307 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,706 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,162 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $196 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,431 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,372 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $500 Mil.
Net Income was 118.963 + 126.583 + 139.432 + 137.208 = $522 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 104.15 + 253.893 + 213.247 + 150.801 = $722 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,651 Mil.
Revenue was 3300.89 + 3357.202 + 3467.362 + 3502.918 = $13,628 Mil.
Gross Profit was 525.11 + 501.816 + 527.564 + 521.037 = $2,076 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,847 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,309 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $191 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $59 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,302 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,651 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $500 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1463.24 / 13249.137)||/||(1651.427 / 13628.372)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(570.777 / 13628.372)||/||(563.335 / 13249.137)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1705.716 + 195.92) / 3162.245)||/||(1 - (1846.915 + 191.141) / 3309.224)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(58.703 / (58.703 + 191.141))||/||(67.041 / (67.041 + 195.92))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1431.368 / 13249.137)||/||(1302.155 / 13628.372)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((500 + 1372.055) / 3162.245)||/||((500 + 1651.096) / 3309.224)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(522.186 - 0||-||722.091)||/||3162.245|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
C.H. Robinson Worldwide Inc has a M-score of -2.94 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
C.H. Robinson Worldwide Inc Annual Data
C.H. Robinson Worldwide Inc Quarterly Data