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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cliffs Natural Resources Inc was 1.47. The lowest was -9.42. And the median was -2.51.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cliffs Natural Resources Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6703||+||0.528 * 1.61||+||0.404 * 1.262||+||0.892 * 0.85||+||0.115 * 0.3155|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.092||+||4.679 * -1.3449||-||0.327 * 2.6593|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $166 Mil.|
Revenue was 1298.2 + 1100.8 + 940 + 1515.8 = $4,855 Mil.
Gross Profit was 127.5 + 92 + 63.2 + 294.5 = $577 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,361 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,811 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,208 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $586 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $230 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,118 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,013 Mil.
Net Income was -5879.6 + 10.9 + -70.3 + 43.3 = $-5,896 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 7.1 + 2.2 + 1.2 + 0.3 = $11 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 227.9 + -41.9 + -82 + 460 = $564 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $292 Mil.
Revenue was 1546.6 + 1488.5 + 1140.5 + 1535.9 = $5,712 Mil.
Gross Profit was 348.7 + 268.2 + 237.9 + 238.5 = $1,093 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,670 Mil.
Total Assets was $13,567 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $11,355 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $582 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $248 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,061 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,320 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(166.2 / 4854.8)||/||(291.7 / 5711.5)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(92 / 5711.5)||/||(127.5 / 4854.8)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1360.6 + 3207.9) / 4811.2)||/||(1 - (1669.6 + 11354.8) / 13566.7)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(581.5 / (581.5 + 11354.8))||/||(585.7 / (585.7 + 3207.9))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(230 / 4854.8)||/||(247.8 / 5711.5)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3012.5 + 1118.3) / 4811.2)||/||((3319.6 + 1060.5) / 13566.7)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-5895.7 - 10.8||-||564)||/||4811.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cliffs Natural Resources Inc has a M-score of -9.42 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cliffs Natural Resources Inc Annual Data
Cliffs Natural Resources Inc Quarterly Data