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Clearfield Inc (NAS:CLFD)
Beneish M-Score
-2.46 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Clearfield Inc has a M-score of -2.46 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

CLFD' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -2600.9   Max: 25.79
Current: -2.46

-2600.9
25.79

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Clearfield Inc was 25.79. The lowest was -2600.90. And the median was -2.46.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Clearfield Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.1503+0.528 * 1.028+0.404 * 0.8864+0.892 * 1.0393+0.115 * 1.2573
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0662+4.679 * -0.0376-0.327 * 0.8884
=-2.46

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep15) TTM:Last Year (Sep14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $6.01 Mil.
Revenue was 15.771 + 18.196 + 12.371 + 13.987 = $60.33 Mil.
Gross Profit was 6.575 + 7.797 + 4.753 + 5.743 = $24.87 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $40.75 Mil.
Total Assets was $57.63 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5.69 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.22 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $17.82 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.04 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was 1.371 + 1.953 + 0.289 + 1.069 = $4.68 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0.00 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.507 + 1.426 + 1.841 + 1.074 = $6.85 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $5.03 Mil.
Revenue was 14.321 + 14.363 + 13.214 + 16.148 = $58.05 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5.897 + 6.043 + 5.721 + 6.938 = $24.60 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $38.03 Mil.
Total Assets was $51.85 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2.46 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $0.70 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $16.08 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $5.10 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(6.011 / 60.325) / (5.028 / 58.046)
=0.0996436 / 0.08662096
=1.1503

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(7.797 / 58.046) / (6.575 / 60.325)
=0.42378458 / 0.41223373
=1.028

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (40.754 + 5.69) / 57.628) / (1 - (38.034 + 2.462) / 51.848)
=0.19407233 / 0.21894769
=0.8864

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=60.325 / 58.046
=1.0393

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(0.7 / (0.7 + 2.462)) / (1.216 / (1.216 + 5.69))
=0.22137887 / 0.17607877
=1.2573

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(17.817 / 60.325) / (16.08 / 58.046)
=0.29535019 / 0.27702167
=1.0662

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((0 + 5.037) / 57.628) / ((0 + 5.101) / 51.848)
=0.08740543 / 0.09838374
=0.8884

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(4.682 - 0 - 6.848) / 57.628
=-0.0376

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Clearfield Inc has a M-score of -2.46 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Clearfield Inc Annual Data

Mar06Mar07Sep08Sep09Sep10Sep11Sep12Sep13Sep14Sep15
DSRI 1.16290.7761.1661.01251.21960.68920.87921.82110.58961.1503
GMI 0.67010.99130.85780.93980.94830.90041.02110.98970.97261.028
AQI 1.07111.02341.78331.08050.94940.78141.23410.610.97530.8864
SGI 1.12511.15651.27941.06180.97681.44431.06481.42371.08791.0393
DEPI 0.70411.26610.96010.95690.88041.05350.99651.27910.9461.2573
SGAI 0.96460.86480.91771.0481.07550.94920.94130.92781.01621.0661
LVGI 1.33710.71251.36210.65850.78111.38880.60391.70170.72320.8884
TATA -0.0082-0.0013-0.03330.07890.02420.02790.10270.0085-0.1176-0.0376
M-score -2.54-2.40-2.10-1.95-2.19-2.49-1.81-1.65-3.27-2.46

Clearfield Inc Quarterly Data

Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15Jun15Sep15Dec15
DSRI 1.82110.46420.54740.67340.58962.16031.56031.65061.15030.9716
GMI 0.98970.94680.94130.93750.97251.00791.051.0441.0281.0068
AQI 0.610.75340.76470.71550.97530.89730.76470.84930.88640.7871
SGI 1.42371.53561.47551.40361.0880.94340.88870.9381.03931.1099
DEPI 1.27911.10410.94591.10210.9461.38731.55381.28341.25730.8405
SGAI 0.9280.88770.90090.88931.01611.12681.18991.14621.06621.0138
LVGI 1.70171.1541.54011.29030.72320.88490.65240.79880.88840.8625
TATA 0.0085-0.1062-0.142-0.1398-0.1176-0.0247-0.010.004-0.0376-0.047
M-score -1.65-3.14-3.43-3.29-3.27-1.56-2.03-1.88-2.46-2.69
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