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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 7 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Colony Capital Inc was -1.10. The lowest was -2.71. And the median was -2.22.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Colony Capital Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6616||+||0.528 * 1||+||0.404 * 1.0882||+||0.892 * 1.376||+||0.115 * 0.725|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0112||+||4.679 * 0.0124||-||0.327 * 0.9953|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,685.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 228.751 + 270.641 + 203.218 + 241.482 = $944.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 228.751 + 270.641 + 203.218 + 241.482 = $944.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,182.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,146.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,340.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $167.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $346.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $439.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,064.7 Mil.
Net Income was 34.971 + 55.049 + 30.015 + 30.838 = $150.9 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -82.551 + -98.364 + -24.197 + -122.027 = $-327.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 110.597 + 112.445 + 77.677 + 50.969 = $351.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,048.6 Mil.
Revenue was 262.978 + 220.904 + 116.612 + 85.597 = $686.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 262.978 + 220.904 + 116.612 + 85.597 = $686.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,356.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $9,704.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $3,042.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $109.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $249.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $830.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,497.1 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3685.654 / 944.092)||/||(4048.649 / 686.091)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(686.091 / 686.091)||/||(944.092 / 944.092)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4182.184 + 3340.72) / 10146.641)||/||(1 - (4356.612 + 3042.047) / 9704.61)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(109.249 / (109.249 + 3042.047))||/||(167.777 / (167.777 + 3340.72))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(346.928 / 944.092)||/||(249.331 / 686.091)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4064.744 + 439.028) / 10146.641)||/||((3497.062 + 830.896) / 9704.61)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(150.873 - -327.139||-||351.688)||/||10146.641|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Colony Capital Inc has a M-score of -2.39 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Colony Capital Inc Annual Data
Colony Capital Inc Quarterly Data