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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Century Casinos Inc was -1.39. The lowest was -3.33. And the median was -2.60.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Century Casinos Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.8662||+||0.528 * 0.8231||+||0.404 * 0.9392||+||0.892 * 1.1199||+||0.115 * 0.9597|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9806||+||4.679 * -0.0529||-||0.327 * 0.917|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 32.628 + 33.526 + 37.875 + 30.405 = $134.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 15.71 + 17.395 + 20.696 + 13.439 = $67.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $34.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $187.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $131.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $8.0 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $42.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $23.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $32.4 Mil.
Net Income was 0.737 + 2.728 + 6.597 + 1.845 = $11.9 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.984 + 0.24 + 0.407 + 0.495 = $2.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 6.387 + 6.04 + 4.67 + 2.577 = $19.7 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1.6 Mil.
Revenue was 31.258 + 28.123 + 31.555 + 29.11 = $120.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 13.134 + 11.817 + 13.022 + 11.448 = $49.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $30.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $187.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $134.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $38.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $28.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $32.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3.279 / 134.434)||/||(1.569 / 120.046)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(17.395 / 120.046)||/||(15.71 / 134.434)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (34.54 + 131.582) / 187.083)||/||(1 - (30.163 + 134.627) / 187.112)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(7.835 / (7.835 + 134.627))||/||(7.999 / (7.999 + 131.582))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(42.749 / 134.434)||/||(38.929 / 120.046)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((32.397 + 23.3) / 187.083)||/||((32.622 + 28.128) / 187.112)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(11.907 - 2.126||-||19.674)||/||187.083|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Century Casinos Inc has a M-score of -1.92 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Century Casinos Inc Annual Data
Century Casinos Inc Quarterly Data