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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Conn's Inc was 9.00. The lowest was -2.45. And the median was -1.09.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Conn's Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9285||+||0.528 * 0.9979||+||0.404 * 1.0191||+||0.892 * 0.9899||+||0.115 * 0.8498|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0714||+||4.679 * 0.0266||-||0.327 * 0.9811|
|This Year (Jan17) TTM:||Last Year (Jan16) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $771 Mil.|
Revenue was 432.805 + 376.773 + 398.157 + 389.113 = $1,597 Mil.
Gross Profit was 215.432 + 184.399 + 189.288 + 184.647 = $774 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,088 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,941 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $159 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $29 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $467 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $167 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,144 Mil.
Net Income was -0.074 + -3.815 + -11.924 + -9.749 = $-26 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -76.908 + -68.74 + -66.158 + -70.571 = $-282 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 22.119 + 51.113 + 23.245 + 108.653 = $205 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $839 Mil.
Revenue was 456.819 + 395.233 + 396.05 + 365.076 = $1,613 Mil.
Gross Profit was 216.188 + 192.332 + 193.589 + 177.943 = $780 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,163 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,025 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $151 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $23 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $441 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $146 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,249 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(771.448 / 1596.848)||/||(839.335 / 1613.178)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(780.052 / 1613.178)||/||(773.766 / 1596.848)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1087.673 + 159.202) / 1941.134)||/||(1 - (1163 + 151.483) / 2025.3)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(22.706 / (22.706 + 151.483))||/||(28.846 / (28.846 + 159.202))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(467.273 / 1596.848)||/||(440.581 / 1613.178)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1144.393 + 167.381) / 1941.134)||/||((1248.879 + 146.125) / 2025.3)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-25.562 - -282.377||-||205.13)||/||1941.134|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Conn's Inc has a M-score of -2.45 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Conn's Inc Annual Data
Conn's Inc Quarterly Data