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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Campbell Soup Co was -1.90. The lowest was -3.15. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Campbell Soup Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9552||+||0.528 * 1.0619||+||0.404 * 0.9863||+||0.892 * 1.0616||+||0.115 * 1.0921|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8785||+||4.679 * -0.0453||-||0.327 * 0.9644|
|This Year (Jan15) TTM:||Last Year (Jan14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $794 Mil.|
Revenue was 2234 + 2255 + 1852 + 1970 = $8,311 Mil.
Gross Profit was 728 + 783 + 631 + 676 = $2,818 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,090 Mil.
Total Assets was $7,903 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,257 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $306 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,453 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,850 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,253 Mil.
Net Income was 207 + 234 + 137 + 184 = $762 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 396 + 188 + 136 + 400 = $1,120 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $783 Mil.
Revenue was 2281 + 2165 + 1289 + 2094 = $7,829 Mil.
Gross Profit was 814 + 777 + 480 + 748 = $2,819 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,174 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,119 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,241 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $336 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,558 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,189 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,247 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(794 / 8311)||/||(783 / 7829)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(783 / 7829)||/||(728 / 8311)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2090 + 2257) / 7903)||/||(1 - (2174 + 2241) / 8119)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(336 / (336 + 2241))||/||(306 / (306 + 2257))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1453 / 8311)||/||(1558 / 7829)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2253 + 2850) / 7903)||/||((2247 + 3189) / 8119)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(762 - 0||-||1120)||/||7903|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Campbell Soup Co has a M-score of -2.61 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Campbell Soup Co Annual Data
Campbell Soup Co Quarterly Data