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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Campbell Soup Co was -1.93. The lowest was -3.11. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Campbell Soup Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0234||+||0.528 * 0.9484||+||0.404 * 1.0005||+||0.892 * 0.9913||+||0.115 * 0.9891|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0156||+||4.679 * -0.0784||-||0.327 * 0.9578|
|This Year (Oct16) TTM:||Last Year (Oct15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $841 Mil.|
Revenue was 2202 + 1687 + 1870 + 2201 = $7,960 Mil.
Gross Profit was 841 + 546 + 660 + 819 = $2,866 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,146 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,039 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,380 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $311 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,503 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,760 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,298 Mil.
Net Income was 292 + -81 + 185 + 265 = $661 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -7 + -142 + 0 + 0 = $-149 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 221 + 280 + 456 + 483 = $1,440 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $829 Mil.
Revenue was 2203 + 1693 + 1900 + 2234 = $8,030 Mil.
Gross Profit was 755 + 562 + 682 + 743 = $2,742 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,337 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,304 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,340 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $302 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,493 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,904 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,551 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(841 / 7960)||/||(829 / 8030)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2742 / 8030)||/||(2866 / 7960)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2146 + 2380) / 8039)||/||(1 - (2337 + 2340) / 8304)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(302 / (302 + 2340))||/||(311 / (311 + 2380))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1503 / 7960)||/||(1493 / 8030)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((2298 + 2760) / 8039)||/||((2551 + 2904) / 8304)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(661 - -149||-||1440)||/||8039|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Campbell Soup Co has a M-score of -2.85 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Campbell Soup Co Annual Data
Campbell Soup Co Quarterly Data