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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Crane Co was -1.94. The lowest was -10000000.00. And the median was -2.55.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Crane Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9039||+||0.528 * 1.0033||+||0.404 * 0.9851||+||0.892 * 1.0223||+||0.115 * 0.9316|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.7236||+||4.679 * -0.0227||-||0.327 * 1.0282|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $432 Mil.|
Revenue was 711.2 + 678.8 + 730.658 + 727.413 = $2,848 Mil.
Gross Profit was 240.5 + 236.8 + 249.02 + 251.122 = $977 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,224 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,428 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $283 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $70 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $39 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $656 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $749 Mil.
Net Income was 55.8 + 51.1 + 56.212 + 28.079 = $191 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.4 + -0.3 + 3.751 + 0.342 = $4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 57.6 + -11.6 + 150.517 + 68.134 = $265 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $467 Mil.
Revenue was 750.1 + 716.8 + 681.449 + 637.515 = $2,786 Mil.
Gross Profit was 262.1 + 254.1 + 226.851 + 216.198 = $959 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,261 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,633 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $306 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $69 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $52 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $699 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $749 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(432 / 2848.071)||/||(467.497 / 2785.864)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(236.8 / 2785.864)||/||(240.5 / 2848.071)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1224.4 + 283.1) / 3428.1)||/||(1 - (1261.093 + 305.681) / 3632.763)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(69.013 / (69.013 + 305.681))||/||(69.766 / (69.766 + 283.1))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(38.743 / 2848.071)||/||(52.373 / 2785.864)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((749.2 + 655.8) / 3428.1)||/||((749.192 + 698.79) / 3632.763)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(191.191 - 4.193||-||264.651)||/||3428.1|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Crane Co has a M-score of -2.63 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Crane Co Annual Data
Crane Co Quarterly Data