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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Crown Crafts Inc was 8.82. The lowest was -8.85. And the median was -2.77.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Crown Crafts Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0164||+||0.528 * 0.9521||+||0.404 * 0.9642||+||0.892 * 0.873||+||0.115 * 0.9994|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0775||+||4.679 * -0.0853||-||0.327 * 0.7606|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $15.90 Mil.|
Revenue was 15.809 + 15.599 + 25.077 + 20.691 = $77.18 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4.309 + 4.287 + 7.074 + 6.252 = $21.92 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $42.70 Mil.
Total Assets was $49.26 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.49 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.00 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $12.26 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $7.81 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
Net Income was 0.999 + 1.103 + 2.194 + 2.143 = $6.44 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.001 + 0.032 + -0.01 + -0.054 = $-0.03 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -1.389 + 8.298 + 1.489 + 2.276 = $10.67 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $17.92 Mil.
Revenue was 20.716 + 17.858 + 26.09 + 23.743 = $88.41 Mil.
Gross Profit was 5.706 + 4.781 + 6.794 + 6.628 = $23.91 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $43.58 Mil.
Total Assets was $50.56 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.52 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.05 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $13.03 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $10.54 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.00 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(15.899 / 77.176)||/||(17.918 / 88.407)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(23.909 / 88.407)||/||(21.922 / 77.176)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (42.695 + 0.491) / 49.262)||/||(1 - (43.575 + 0.518) / 50.561)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1.054 / (1.054 + 0.518))||/||(1.001 / (1.001 + 0.491))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(12.256 / 77.176)||/||(13.03 / 88.407)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 7.81) / 49.262)||/||((0 + 10.539) / 50.561)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(6.439 - -0.033||-||10.674)||/||49.262|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Crown Crafts Inc has a M-score of -2.95 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Crown Crafts Inc Annual Data
Crown Crafts Inc Quarterly Data