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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cardiovascular Systems Inc was 124.45. The lowest was -4.85. And the median was -2.51.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cardiovascular Systems Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9046||+||0.528 * 0.9777||+||0.404 * 0.9756||+||0.892 * 1.0003||+||0.115 * 0.6118|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0422||+||4.679 * -0.1727||-||0.327 * 1.1971|
|This Year (Sep16) TTM:||Last Year (Sep15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $24.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 49.8 + 48.46 + 44.461 + 41.392 = $184.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 40.334 + 38.606 + 35.736 + 33.321 = $148.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $102.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $138.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $31.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $4.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $158.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $30.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was -1.858 + -4.884 + -22.716 + -15.163 = $-44.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.033 + 0.053 + 0 + 0 = $0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -2.076 + -3.383 + -2.645 + -12.719 = $-20.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $26.9 Mil.
Revenue was 43.871 + 48.454 + 47.004 + 44.732 = $184.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 35.1 + 37.581 + 36.588 + 35.386 = $144.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $123.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $162.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $33.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2.9 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $151.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $29.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(24.308 / 184.113)||/||(26.864 / 184.061)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(144.655 / 184.061)||/||(147.997 / 184.113)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (102.092 + 31.82) / 138.334)||/||(1 - (123.358 + 33.711) / 162.39)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(2.886 / (2.886 + 33.711))||/||(4.708 / (4.708 + 31.82))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(158.013 / 184.113)||/||(151.572 / 184.061)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 30.451) / 138.334)||/||((0 + 29.862) / 162.39)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-44.621 - 0.086||-||-20.823)||/||138.334|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cardiovascular Systems Inc has a M-score of -3.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cardiovascular Systems Inc Annual Data
Cardiovascular Systems Inc Quarterly Data