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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Carlisle Companies Inc was -1.10. The lowest was -3.34. And the median was -2.59.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Carlisle Companies Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9815||+||0.528 * 0.9023||+||0.404 * 0.9635||+||0.892 * 1.0373||+||0.115 * 1.0104|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1103||+||4.679 * -0.0366||-||0.327 * 0.9204|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $512 Mil.|
Revenue was 893.5 + 991 + 996.9 + 794 = $3,675 Mil.
Gross Profit was 267.1 + 323.6 + 321.2 + 245.4 = $1,157 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,355 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,966 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $632 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $138 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $532 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $514 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $596 Mil.
Net Income was 76.2 + -9.8 + 115.2 + 68.5 = $250 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.4 + -139.3 + 1.2 + 0.6 = $-136 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 176.1 + 175.2 + 70.9 + 109 = $531 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $503 Mil.
Revenue was 876.2 + 973.1 + 984.6 + 709.3 = $3,543 Mil.
Gross Profit was 252.8 + 295.5 + 285.4 + 173 = $1,007 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,320 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,951 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $586 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $129 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $462 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $606 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $596 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(511.6 / 3675.4)||/||(502.5 / 3543.2)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1006.7 / 3543.2)||/||(1157.3 / 3675.4)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1355.2 + 632.2) / 3965.8)||/||(1 - (1319.5 + 585.8) / 3950.9)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(129.3 / (129.3 + 585.8))||/||(137.8 / (137.8 + 632.2))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(532 / 3675.4)||/||(461.9 / 3543.2)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((596.4 + 513.5) / 3965.8)||/||((595.6 + 605.8) / 3950.9)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(250.1 - -136.1||-||531.2)||/||3965.8|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Carlisle Companies Inc has a M-score of -2.69 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Carlisle Companies Inc Annual Data
Carlisle Companies Inc Quarterly Data