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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
CSS Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of CSS Industries Inc was -1.26. The lowest was -3.73. And the median was -2.61.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of CSS Industries Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1657||+||0.528 * 0.9305||+||0.404 * 0.9122||+||0.892 * 0.8799||+||0.115 * 0.98|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0601||+||4.679 * -0.0307||-||0.327 * 0.7752|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $44.2 Mil.|
Revenue was 54.56 + 106.295 + 112.487 + 47.117 = $320.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 15.704 + 36.266 + 36.727 + 14.459 = $103.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $219.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $293.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $27.1 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $75.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $31.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was -1.529 + 11.007 + 10.958 + -1.667 = $18.8 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.09 + -0.003 + 0.038 + -0.006 = $-0.1 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 31.374 + 35.263 + -22.822 + -15.985 = $27.8 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $43.1 Mil.
Revenue was 53.621 + 116.02 + 133.485 + 61.067 = $364.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 13.449 + 37.613 + 40.831 + 17.198 = $109.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $210.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $289.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $28.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $80.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $35.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4.8 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(44.243 / 320.459)||/||(43.133 / 364.193)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(36.266 / 364.193)||/||(15.704 / 320.459)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (219.444 + 27.063) / 293.535)||/||(1 - (210.434 + 27.956) / 289.18)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(7.594 / (7.594 + 27.956))||/||(7.543 / (7.543 + 27.063))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(75.204 / 320.459)||/||(80.619 / 364.193)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 31.635) / 293.535)||/||((4.825 + 35.377) / 289.18)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(18.769 - -0.061||-||27.83)||/||293.535|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
CSS Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.59 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
CSS Industries Inc Annual Data
CSS Industries Inc Quarterly Data