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CSS Industries Inc (NYSE:CSS)
Beneish M-Score
-2.60 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

CSS Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

CSS' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.48   Max: -1.33
Current: -2.6

-3.48
-1.33

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of CSS Industries Inc was -1.33. The lowest was -3.48. And the median was -2.71.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of CSS Industries Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 1.1496+0.528 * 0.9454+0.404 * 0.961+0.892 * 0.9182+0.115 * 0.962
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0327+4.679 * -0.0387-0.327 * 0.8423
=-2.60

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Jun14) TTM:Last Year (Jun13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $42.7 Mil.
Revenue was 48.257 + 54.56 + 106.295 + 112.487 = $321.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 14.599 + 15.704 + 36.266 + 36.727 = $103.3 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $216.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $291.9 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $26.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $75.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $32.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was -1.325 + -1.529 + 11.007 + 10.958 = $19.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.079 + -0.09 + -0.003 + 0.038 = $0.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -13.43 + 31.374 + 35.263 + -22.822 = $30.4 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $40.5 Mil.
Revenue was 47.117 + 53.621 + 116.02 + 133.485 = $350.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 14.459 + 13.449 + 37.613 + 40.831 = $106.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $210.1 Mil.
Total Assets was $287.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $28.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7.5 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $79.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $37.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(42.737 / 321.599) / (40.488 / 350.243)
=0.13288909 / 0.11559974
=1.1496

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(15.704 / 350.243) / (14.599 / 321.599)
=0.30365204 / 0.32119503
=0.9454

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (216.685 + 26.797) / 291.884) / (1 - (210.117 + 28.046) / 287.831)
=0.16582615 / 0.17255959
=0.961

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=321.599 / 350.243
=0.9182

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(7.527 / (7.527 + 28.046)) / (7.556 / (7.556 + 26.797))
=0.21159306 / 0.21995168
=0.962

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(74.957 / 321.599) / (79.052 / 350.243)
=0.23307597 / 0.22570615
=1.0327

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((0 + 32.397) / 291.884) / ((0 + 37.93) / 287.831)
=0.11099272 / 0.13177872
=0.8423

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(19.111 - 0.024 - 30.385) / 291.884
=-0.0387

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

CSS Industries Inc has a M-score of -2.60 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

CSS Industries Inc Annual Data

Mar05Mar06Mar07Mar08Mar09Mar10Mar11Mar12Mar13Mar14
DSRI 0.92640.97441.03441.12171.15411.12420.92761.2381.01181.1657
GMI 1.02781.08040.93040.93271.05441.06160.97290.8750.96730.9305
AQI 1.10150.98880.98472.35521.12160.67791.04190.88330.91630.9122
SGI 0.99450.97971.00990.93890.96820.92961.0050.85350.94680.8799
DEPI 0.92920.93830.86770.94561.0690.93040.81211.21840.98470.98
SGAI 0.96071.02351.05471.07151.0331.0640.96791.0790.99361.0601
LVGI 1.06220.86920.8010.96470.78650.93441.13220.84690.91880.7752
TATA -0.0248-0.0183-0.0943-0.0493-0.0339-0.257-0.0921-0.0342-0.0503-0.0307
M-score -2.63-2.54-2.88-2.15-2.38-3.73-3.03-2.60-2.78-2.59

CSS Industries Inc Quarterly Data

Mar12Jun12Sep12Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14
DSRI 1.2361.37731.1780.91141.0130.81440.95671.09541.16571.1496
GMI 0.89690.84930.87560.95630.94540.96410.96440.94830.93050.9454
AQI 0.88330.84180.93250.82980.91630.92571.01270.95740.91220.961
SGI 0.85480.86490.89090.96130.94560.89540.85540.85960.87990.9182
DEPI 1.70391.66771.67871.67120.98470.99561.00351.0080.980.962
SGAI 1.09721.08311.06790.97970.98431.04221.06951.08011.06021.0327
LVGI 0.85440.84040.65720.84211.02790.86320.89090.94080.77520.8423
TATA -0.0342-0.0743-0.1416-0.1148-0.0503-0.0812-0.0934-0.0515-0.0307-0.0387
M-score -2.54-2.63-2.99-3.09-2.82-3.14-3.08-2.80-2.59-2.60
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