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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Cenveo Inc was -1.62. The lowest was -4.34. And the median was -2.70.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Cenveo Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9371||+||0.528 * 1.1097||+||0.404 * 0.9304||+||0.892 * 1.1491||+||0.115 * 0.8871|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9953||+||4.679 * -0.0705||-||0.327 * 1.0884|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $287 Mil.|
Revenue was 480.576 + 479.41 + 490.119 + 509.873 = $1,960 Mil.
Gross Profit was 70.434 + 79.974 + 74.962 + 80.334 = $306 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $520 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,206 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $289 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $65 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $222 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $373 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,245 Mil.
Net Income was -10.893 + -38.637 + -15.834 + -57.677 = $-123 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 5.733 + -26.692 + 0.491 + -20.762 = $-41 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 19.853 + -22.033 + -5.081 + 10.44 = $3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $267 Mil.
Revenue was 442.781 + 406.54 + 418.614 + 437.7 = $1,706 Mil.
Gross Profit was 75.425 + 69.405 + 66.712 + 83.672 = $295 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $493 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,239 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $307 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $59 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $194 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $350 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,176 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(287.45 / 1959.978)||/||(266.932 / 1705.635)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(79.974 / 1705.635)||/||(70.434 / 1959.978)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (520.041 + 289.283) / 1206.366)||/||(1 - (493.376 + 307.006) / 1238.506)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(59.415 / (59.415 + 307.006))||/||(64.708 / (64.708 + 289.283))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(221.713 / 1959.978)||/||(193.845 / 1705.635)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1245.086 + 372.628) / 1206.366)||/||((1175.657 + 350.253) / 1238.506)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-123.041 - -41.23||-||3.179)||/||1206.366|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Cenveo Inc has a M-score of -2.75 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Cenveo Inc Annual Data
Cenveo Inc Quarterly Data