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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Dana Inc was -1.86. The lowest was -3.44. And the median was -2.62.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Dana Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1144||+||0.528 * 0.9671||+||0.404 * 1.4641||+||0.892 * 0.9614||+||0.115 * 1.1371|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0801||+||4.679 * 0.0763||-||0.327 * 0.954|
|This Year (Dec16) TTM:||Last Year (Dec15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $721 Mil.|
Revenue was 1447 + 1384 + 1546 + 1449 = $5,826 Mil.
Gross Profit was 204 + 208 + 233 + 199 = $844 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,284 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,860 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,413 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $182 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $406 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,253 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,595 Mil.
Net Income was 485 + 57 + 53 + 45 = $640 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -84 + -11 + -17 + -3 = $-115 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 202 + 24 + 185 + -27 = $384 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $673 Mil.
Revenue was 1375 + 1468 + 1609 + 1608 = $6,060 Mil.
Gross Profit was 172 + 213 + 236 + 228 = $849 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,431 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,301 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,167 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $174 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $391 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,089 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,553 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(721 / 5826)||/||(673 / 6060)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(849 / 6060)||/||(844 / 5826)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2284 + 1413) / 4860)||/||(1 - (2431 + 1167) / 4301)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(174 / (174 + 1167))||/||(182 / (182 + 1413))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(406 / 5826)||/||(391 / 6060)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1595 + 1253) / 4860)||/||((1553 + 1089) / 4301)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(640 - -115||-||384)||/||4860|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Dana Inc has a M-score of -1.87 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Dana Inc Annual Data
Dana Inc Quarterly Data