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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of NTT DoCoMo Inc was -2.19. The lowest was -7.49. And the median was -2.91.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of NTT DoCoMo Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9008||+||0.528 * 1.0813||+||0.404 * 0.9623||+||0.892 * 0.8834||+||0.115 * 1.0081|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9819||+||4.679 * -0.0831||-||0.327 * 0.9829|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $2,149 Mil.|
Revenue was 8776.28961456 + 9669.5699834 + 10217.9739113 + 10535.6794682 = $39,200 Mil.
Gross Profit was 4284.43159779 + 5191.6348274 + 5613.69392985 + 6196.76689571 = $21,287 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $20,062 Mil.
Total Assets was $59,358 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $20,857 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $5,898 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $9,312 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $9,255 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,831 Mil.
Net Income was 234.578822122 + 1025.18116747 + 1146.28994738 + 1336.24460994 = $3,742 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -26.5211450689 + 27.3039716468 + 14.4378859063 + 26.5522535613 = $42 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2205.82335572 + 1450.54654037 + 3051.96056437 + 1924.9404044 = $8,633 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $2,701 Mil.
Revenue was 10725.4152824 + 11256.4566016 + 10940.3991533 + 11452.3885432 = $44,375 Mil.
Gross Profit was 6081.62986125 + 6162.84554417 + 6764.37859087 + 7047.65773641 = $26,057 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $24,690 Mil.
Total Assets was $73,364 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $24,993 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $7,142 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $10,736 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $11,784 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $2,156 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(2149.27592207 / 39199.5129775)||/||(2700.88919289 / 44374.6595805)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(5191.6348274 / 44374.6595805)||/||(4284.43159779 / 39199.5129775)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (20062.1789201 + 20856.9909755) / 59357.6949113)||/||(1 - (24689.876881 + 24992.8278288) / 73363.5919484)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(7141.93885775 / (7141.93885775 + 24992.8278288))||/||(5898.48536732 / (5898.48536732 + 20856.9909755))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(9312.18906416 / 39199.5129775)||/||(10736.1501844 / 44374.6595805)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1830.64841002 + 9255.42279755) / 59357.6949113)||/||((2155.58921243 + 11784.1117842) / 73363.5919484)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(3742.29454691 - 41.7729660454||-||8633.27086485)||/||59357.6949113|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
NTT DoCoMo Inc has a M-score of -3.03 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
NTT DoCoMo Inc Annual Data
NTT DoCoMo Inc Quarterly Data