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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Douglas Emmett Inc has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Douglas Emmett Inc was -1.06. The lowest was -5.39. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Douglas Emmett Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.065||+||0.528 * 1.0099||+||0.404 * 1.1422||+||0.892 * 1.0155||+||0.115 * 0.9001|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8971||+||4.679 * -0.0375||-||0.327 * 0.9824|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1.7 Mil.|
Revenue was 148.146 + 151.426 + 148.876 + 147.676 = $596.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 95.249 + 101.665 + 100.387 + 98.429 = $395.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $87.2 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,760.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,431.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $186.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $26.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $101.9 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,210.2 Mil.
Net Income was 7.389 + 13.363 + 12.976 + 8.843 = $42.6 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 2.299 + 3.855 + 3.919 + 0.504 = $10.6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 67.907 + 53.367 + 73.435 + 53.249 = $248.0 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1.6 Mil.
Revenue was 149.686 + 148.716 + 145.458 + 143.15 = $587.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 98.035 + 101.052 + 99.14 + 95.297 = $393.5 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $218.3 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,986.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,547.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $171.2 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $28.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $89.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,414.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1.724 / 596.124)||/||(1.594 / 587.01)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(101.665 / 587.01)||/||(95.249 / 596.124)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (87.23 + 5431.345) / 5760.651)||/||(1 - (218.314 + 5547.86) / 5986.41)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(171.205 / (171.205 + 5547.86))||/||(186.843 / (186.843 + 5431.345))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(26.071 / 596.124)||/||(28.616 / 587.01)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3210.21 + 101.888) / 5760.651)||/||((3414.56 + 89.07) / 5986.41)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(42.571 - 10.577||-||247.958)||/||5760.651|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Douglas Emmett Inc has a M-score of -2.51 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Douglas Emmett Inc Annual Data
Douglas Emmett Inc Quarterly Data