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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of DR Horton Inc was 0.04. The lowest was -8.86. And the median was -1.76.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of DR Horton Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1||+||0.528 * 1.0044||+||0.404 * 0.9879||+||0.892 * 1.2634||+||0.115 * 0.5559|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9234||+||4.679 * -0.007||-||0.327 * 0.9267|
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.|
Revenue was 2416.4 + 3172.4 + 2950.8 + 2398 = $10,938 Mil.
Gross Profit was 524.2 + 663.6 + 630.4 + 506 = $2,324 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,367 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,180 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $148 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $55 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,200 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,351 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,734 Mil.
Net Income was 157.7 + 238.9 + 221.4 + 147.9 = $766 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 3.4 + 4.5 + 3.9 + 4.5 = $16 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -1.5 + 511.8 + 357.4 + -39.8 = $828 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $0 Mil.
Revenue was 2302.6 + 2472.4 + 2147 + 1735 = $8,657 Mil.
Gross Profit was 488.2 + 522.7 + 421.5 + 415.2 = $1,848 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $8,540 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,339 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $240 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $43 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $1,028 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,348 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,727 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 10937.6)||/||(0 / 8657)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(663.6 / 8657)||/||(524.2 / 10937.6)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9366.6 + 147.6) / 11179.5)||/||(1 - (8539.9 + 239.9) / 10338.7)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(42.9 / (42.9 + 239.9))||/||(55.4 / (55.4 + 147.6))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(1199.5 / 10937.6)||/||(1028.1 / 8657)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3734.3 + 1350.9) / 11179.5)||/||((3726.8 + 1348.1) / 10338.7)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(765.9 - 16.3||-||827.9)||/||11179.5|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
DR Horton Inc has a M-score of -2.29 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
DR Horton Inc Annual Data
DR Horton Inc Quarterly Data