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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Danaher Corporation has a M-score of -2.50 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Danaher Corporation was -2.20. The lowest was -2.87. And the median was -2.50.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Danaher Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0575||+||0.528 * 0.991||+||0.404 * 0.9681||+||0.892 * 1.0515||+||0.115 * 0.9849|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9965||+||4.679 * -0.0308||-||0.327 * 0.8594|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $3,468 Mil.|
Revenue was 4662.7 + 5266.7 + 4669.1 + 4737.5 = $19,336 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2452.9 + 2711.7 + 2424.7 + 2495.5 = $10,085 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $9,404 Mil.
Total Assets was $35,043 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,183 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $903 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,485 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,304 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,423 Mil.
Net Income was 579.7 + 789.3 + 597 + 616.8 = $2,583 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 201.5 + 0 + 0 = $202 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 511.2 + 1078.2 + 971.4 + 899.2 = $3,460 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $3,118 Mil.
Revenue was 4444.7 + 4975.2 + 4415.5 + 4553.5 = $18,389 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2325.7 + 2545.3 + 2278 + 2355.5 = $9,505 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $7,910 Mil.
Total Assets was $32,469 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $2,110 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $854 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $5,235 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,927 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,404 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(3467.6 / 19336)||/||(3118.3 / 18388.9)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(2711.7 / 18388.9)||/||(2452.9 / 19336)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (9404.3 + 2182.6) / 35042.6)||/||(1 - (7910 + 2109.9) / 32469.3)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(854.3 / (854.3 + 2109.9))||/||(902.9 / (902.9 + 2182.6))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(5485 / 19336)||/||(5234.7 / 18388.9)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3422.9 + 4304.4) / 35042.6)||/||((4404.3 + 3926.5) / 32469.3)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(2582.8 - 201.5||-||3460)||/||35042.6|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Danaher Corporation has a M-score of -2.50 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Danaher Corporation Annual Data
Danaher Corporation Quarterly Data