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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of DineEquity Inc was -0.35. The lowest was -4.77. And the median was -2.56.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of DineEquity Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0343||+||0.528 * 0.992||+||0.404 * 0.9893||+||0.892 * 1.0113||+||0.115 * 0.9142|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9805||+||4.679 * -0.0203||-||0.327 * 1.0083|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $91.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 162.853 + 160.521 + 167.201 + 157.901 = $648.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 91.629 + 94.473 + 97.072 + 91.199 = $374.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $308.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,342.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $252.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $35.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $141.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $252.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,347.2 Mil.
Net Income was 18.887 + 19.167 + 20.824 + 18.131 = $77.0 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.012 + -0.513 + -1.133 + -1.167 = $-2.8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 46.435 + 3.152 + 52.84 + 25.001 = $127.4 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $87.3 Mil.
Revenue was 161.283 + 158.114 + 163.169 + 158.637 = $641.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 93.043 + 91.026 + 94.424 + 88.738 = $367.2 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $261.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,347.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $281.4 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $35.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $142.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $217.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,372.3 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(91.292 / 648.476)||/||(87.276 / 641.203)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(94.473 / 641.203)||/||(91.629 / 648.476)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (308.581 + 252.673) / 2342.758)||/||(1 - (261.764 + 281.432) / 2347.716)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(35.298 / (35.298 + 281.432))||/||(35.076 / (35.076 + 252.673))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(141.418 / 648.476)||/||(142.611 / 641.203)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1347.156 + 252.265) / 2342.758)||/||((1372.279 + 217.32) / 2347.716)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(77.009 - -2.801||-||127.428)||/||2342.758|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
DineEquity Inc has a M-score of -2.55 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
DineEquity Inc Annual Data
DineEquity Inc Quarterly Data