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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Denbury Resources Inc was 1.20. The lowest was -4.16. And the median was -2.71.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Denbury Resources Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.5049||+||0.528 * 1.1792||+||0.404 * 0.9562||+||0.892 * 0.8157||+||0.115 * 0.9209|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9115||+||4.679 * -0.0897||-||0.327 * 0.9134|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $148 Mil.|
Revenue was 307.649 + 483.684 + 637.657 + 672.12 = $2,101 Mil.
Gross Profit was 127.254 + 274.903 + 415.731 + 434.281 = $1,252 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $769 Mil.
Total Assets was $12,468 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $10,180 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $602 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $161 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $382 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,596 Mil.
Net Income was -107.746 + 363.633 + 268.748 + -55.2 = $469 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -63.124 + 541.614 + 252.265 + -288.679 = $442 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 137.764 + 337.728 + 340.392 + 329.847 = $1,146 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $360 Mil.
Revenue was 641.744 + 599.122 + 684.835 + 650.084 = $2,576 Mil.
Gross Profit was 466.16 + 410.615 + 503.868 + 429.526 = $1,810 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $424 Mil.
Total Assets was $11,868 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $9,932 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $538 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $216 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $633 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $3,512 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(148.125 / 2101.11)||/||(359.648 / 2575.785)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(274.903 / 2575.785)||/||(127.254 / 2101.11)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (768.654 + 10180.074) / 12468.056)||/||(1 - (423.584 + 9931.977) / 11867.958)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(538.175 / (538.175 + 9931.977))||/||(601.8 / (601.8 + 10180.074))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(160.93 / 2101.11)||/||(216.445 / 2575.785)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((3596.085 + 381.674) / 12468.056)||/||((3512.041 + 633.264) / 11867.958)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(469.435 - 442.076||-||1145.731)||/||12468.056|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Denbury Resources Inc has a M-score of -3.41 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Denbury Resources Inc Annual Data
Denbury Resources Inc Quarterly Data