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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Dow Chemical Co was -1.08. The lowest was -3.13. And the median was -2.69.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Dow Chemical Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.1386||+||0.528 * 0.8363||+||0.404 * 1.0436||+||0.892 * 0.8401||+||0.115 * 1.0935|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.1447||+||4.679 * -0.045||-||0.327 * 0.9138|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $4,491 Mil.|
Revenue was 10703 + 11462 + 12036 + 12910 = $47,111 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2752 + 2656 + 2687 + 2764 = $10,859 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $23,334 Mil.
Total Assets was $68,440 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18,420 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,494 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $2,961 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $11,682 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $16,229 Mil.
Net Income was 254 + 3612 + 1375 + 1220 = $6,461 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -1202 + 3011 + 767 + 657 = $3,233 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 52 + 2341 + 2511 + 1406 = $6,310 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $4,695 Mil.
Revenue was 12370 + 14384 + 14405 + 14917 = $56,076 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2835 + 2773 + 2629 + 2573 = $10,810 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $24,394 Mil.
Total Assets was $67,789 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $18,066 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $2,709 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $3,079 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $12,387 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $17,867 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(4491 / 47111)||/||(4695 / 56076)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(10810 / 56076)||/||(10859 / 47111)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (23334 + 18420) / 68440)||/||(1 - (24394 + 18066) / 67789)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(2709 / (2709 + 18066))||/||(2494 / (2494 + 18420))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(2961 / 47111)||/||(3079 / 56076)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((16229 + 11682) / 68440)||/||((17867 + 12387) / 67789)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(6461 - 3233||-||6310)||/||68440|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Dow Chemical Co has a M-score of -2.76 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Dow Chemical Co Annual Data
Dow Chemical Co Quarterly Data