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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
DST Systems, Inc. has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of DST Systems, Inc. was -2.34. The lowest was -2.34. And the median was -2.34.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of DST Systems, Inc. for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $415 Mil.|
Revenue was 683.8 + 667.3 + 651.8 + 657.1 = $2,660 Mil.
Gross Profit was 100.1 + 122.5 + 120.4 + 105.8 = $449 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $932 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,076 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $414 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $142 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,050 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $387 Mil.
Net Income was 100.4 + 84 + 96.9 + 78.5 = $360 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 98.4 + 75.2 + 76.4 + 36.9 = $287 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 71.3 + 61.3 + 90.3 + 201.4 = $424 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $406 Mil.
Revenue was 682.4 + 658.6 + 632 + 632.8 = $2,606 Mil.
Gross Profit was 107.8 + 98.8 + 87.6 + 93.2 = $387 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $931 Mil.
Total Assets was $3,417 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $469 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $216 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,354 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $474 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(414.7 / 2660)||/||(405.9 / 2605.8)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(122.5 / 2605.8)||/||(100.1 / 2660)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (932 + 413.5) / 3076)||/||(1 - (930.5 + 468.7) / 3417.3)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(215.6 / (215.6 + 468.7))||/||(142.1 / (142.1 + 413.5))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 2660)||/||(0 / 2605.8)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((387.2 + 1050.4) / 3076)||/||((473.9 + 1354.2) / 3417.3)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(359.8 - 286.9||-||424.3)||/||3076|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
DST Systems, Inc. has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
DST Systems, Inc. Annual Data
DST Systems, Inc. Quarterly Data