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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
DeVry Education Group Inc has a M-score of -2.80 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of DeVry Education Group Inc was -2.00. The lowest was -2.96. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of DeVry Education Group Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.969||+||0.528 * 1.0439||+||0.404 * 0.9533||+||0.892 * 0.9791||+||0.115 * 1.0082|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9828||+||4.679 * -0.0658||-||0.327 * 0.9314|
|This Year (Jun14) TTM:||Last Year (Jun13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $133 Mil.|
Revenue was 485.073 + 496.117 + 491.269 + 450.913 = $1,923 Mil.
Gross Profit was 229 + 253.486 + 248.272 + 209.176 = $940 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $577 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,998 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $556 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $90 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $728 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $317 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 37.484 + 55.525 + 48.155 + -7.132 = $134 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.352 + 150.088 + -28.099 + 141.22 = $266 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $140 Mil.
Revenue was 479.964 + 503.825 + 500.666 + 479.92 = $1,964 Mil.
Gross Profit was 234.266 + 266.997 + 260.422 + 240.467 = $1,002 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $442 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,857 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $572 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $93 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $756 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $316 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(132.621 / 1923.372)||/||(139.778 / 1964.375)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(253.486 / 1964.375)||/||(229 / 1923.372)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (577.091 + 555.837) / 1997.636)||/||(1 - (442.164 + 571.657) / 1857.018)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(93.25 / (93.25 + 571.657))||/||(89.817 / (89.817 + 555.837))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(727.869 / 1923.372)||/||(756.384 / 1964.375)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 316.812) / 1997.636)||/||((0 + 316.217) / 1857.018)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(134.032 - 0||-||265.561)||/||1997.636|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
DeVry Education Group Inc has a M-score of -2.80 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
DeVry Education Group Inc Annual Data
DeVry Education Group Inc Quarterly Data