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GuruFocus has detected 1 Warning Sign with Ennis Inc $EBF.
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Ennis Inc (NYSE:EBF)
Beneish M-Score
-3.39 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Ennis Inc has a M-score of -3.39 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

EBF' s Beneish M-Score Range Over the Past 10 Years
Min: -4.15   Max: -1.49
Current: -3.39

-4.15
-1.49

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Ennis Inc was -1.49. The lowest was -4.15. And the median was -2.61.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Ennis Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.5176+0.528 * 1.1248+0.404 * 1.0457+0.892 * 1.2519+0.115 * 0.4901
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0356+4.679 * -0.1643-0.327 * 0.819
=-3.39

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

This Year (Nov16) TTM:Last Year (Nov15) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $35.2 Mil.
Revenue was 88.66 + 91.246 + 90.41 + 274.233 = $544.5 Mil.
Gross Profit was 25.292 + 27.038 + 26.694 + 61.693 = $140.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $157.7 Mil.
Total Assets was $318.6 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $46.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $17.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $92.2 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $24.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $30.0 Mil.
Net Income was 5.74 + 6.784 + -16.878 + 4.845 = $0.5 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0.088 + 0.011 + -0.007 + 1.638 = $1.7 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 13.482 + 14.031 + 15.047 + 8.538 = $51.1 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $54.2 Mil.
Revenue was 97.516 + 100.455 + 96.769 + 140.242 = $435.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 29.719 + 31.363 + 29.964 + 35.384 = $126.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $181.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $407.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $86.3 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $13.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $71.1 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $40.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $45.0 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(35.15 / 544.549) / (54.243 / 434.982)
=0.06454883 / 0.12470171
=0.5176

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(126.43 / 434.982) / (140.717 / 544.549)
=0.29065571 / 0.25841017
=1.1248

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (157.666 + 46.564) / 318.618) / (1 - (180.999 + 86.303) / 407.055)
=0.35901299 / 0.34332707
=1.0457

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=544.549 / 434.982
=1.2519

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(13.406 / (13.406 + 86.303)) / (17.601 / (17.601 + 46.564))
=0.13445125 / 0.27430842
=0.4901

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(92.157 / 544.549) / (71.086 / 434.982)
=0.16923546 / 0.16342285
=1.0356

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((30 + 24.784) / 318.618) / ((45 + 40.461) / 407.055)
=0.17194258 / 0.20994952
=0.819

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(0.491 - 1.73 - 51.098) / 318.618
=-0.1643

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Ennis Inc has a M-score of -3.39 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their local exchange's currency.

Ennis Inc Annual Data

Feb07Feb08Feb09Feb10Feb11Feb12Feb13Feb14Feb15Feb16
DSRI 1.08521.46370.83131.12380.95961.07170.99021.04290.92270.8901
GMI 1.01770.99841.01760.93990.93041.11281.08480.87791.05730.934
AQI 1.00160.94850.87411.0140.90030.96071.05761.01440.7381.0596
SGI 1.04531.04430.95650.88651.06230.941.03191.01671.06970.9806
DEPI 1.04611.06671.07981.25361.46850.93730.85190.9450.89290.8485
SGAI 0.99321.02191.16131.0041.02651.00381.02791.01780.96991.0523
LVGI 0.85630.96110.99050.76960.9681.28620.771.35371.17820.6332
TATA -0.01620.0282-0.1773-0.10880.02540.0128-0.0505-0.0363-0.2436-0.1353
M-score -2.37-1.89-3.56-2.90-2.36-2.47-2.58-2.78-3.77-3.15

Ennis Inc Quarterly Data

Aug14Nov14Feb15May15Aug15Nov15Feb16May16Aug16Nov16
DSRI 1.06290.95450.92270.98991.0731.12930.89010.55110.52250.5176
GMI 0.98971.05581.05731.00630.93810.8640.9340.98381.04861.1248
AQI 0.9930.66870.7380.76950.79071.11591.05960.9761.05961.0457
SGI 1.06711.07151.06970.98290.86240.76030.98061.051.14241.2519
DEPI 0.86520.80160.89290.98531.04831.15130.84850.55290.52860.4901
SGAI 0.97430.96650.96990.99291.04581.05671.05231.051.03461.0356
LVGI 1.68321.25681.17821.05560.94220.65270.63320.57140.6840.819
TATA -0.0212-0.2435-0.2436-0.2893-0.3237-0.1438-0.1353-0.1755-0.1612-0.1643
M-score -2.70-3.80-3.77-3.97-4.15-3.15-3.15-3.61-3.45-3.39
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