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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Consolidated Edison Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Consolidated Edison Inc was 0.00. The lowest was 0.00. And the median was 0.00.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Consolidated Edison Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 *||+||0.528 *||+||0.404 *||+||0.892 *||+||0.115 *|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 *||+||4.679 *||-||0.327 *|
|This Year (Sep14) TTM:||Last Year (Sep13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,280 Mil.|
Revenue was 3390 + 2911 + 3789 + 2867 = $12,957 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2398 + 1943 + 2270 + 1938 = $8,549 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,519 Mil.
Total Assets was $40,667 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $29,239 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,056 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $3,873 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,986 Mil.
Net Income was 436 + 212 + 361 + 234 = $1,243 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 26 + 10 + 11 + -21 = $26 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 494 + 1033 + 224 + 1314 = $3,065 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,273 Mil.
Revenue was 3484 + 2818 + 3184 + 2901 = $12,387 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2408 + 1874 + 2080 + 1981 = $8,343 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,704 Mil.
Total Assets was $41,964 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $27,955 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1,010 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $4,373 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $10,495 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1280 / 12957)||/||(1273 / 12387)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(1943 / 12387)||/||(2398 / 12957)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (3519 + 29239) / 40667)||/||(1 - (3704 + 27955) / 41964)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1010 / (1010 + 27955))||/||(1056 / (1056 + 29239))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(0 / 12957)||/||(0 / 12387)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((10986 + 3873) / 40667)||/||((10495 + 4373) / 41964)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1243 - 26||-||3065)||/||40667|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Consolidated Edison Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Consolidated Edison Inc Annual Data
Consolidated Edison Inc Quarterly Data