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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
Empire District Electric Co has a M-score of -2.75 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Empire District Electric Co was -2.59. The lowest was -3.31. And the median was -2.75.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Empire District Electric Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9854||+||0.528 * 0.9819||+||0.404 * 0.726||+||0.892 * 1.0906||+||0.115 * 0.9629|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9045||+||4.679 * -0.0465||-||0.327 * 1.0452|
|This Year (Mar14) TTM:||Last Year (Mar13) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $83.3 Mil.|
Revenue was 179.673 + 149.058 + 157.486 + 136.646 = $622.9 Mil.
Gross Profit was 81.085 + 70.816 + 85.331 + 64.873 = $302.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $164.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,168.5 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,787.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $74.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $30.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $111.8 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $743.4 Mil.
Net Income was 20.905 + 15.162 + 23.996 + 11.658 = $71.7 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 1.701 + 1.026 + 0.795 + 1.049 = $4.6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 54.572 + 39.81 + 46.636 + 26.928 = $167.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $77.5 Mil.
Revenue was 151.14 + 129.12 + 159.202 + 131.632 = $571.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 66.775 + 57.843 + 85.877 + 61.491 = $272.0 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $164.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,135.8 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,677.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $67.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $30.4 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $114.2 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $691.6 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(83.289 / 622.863)||/||(77.501 / 571.094)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(70.816 / 571.094)||/||(81.085 / 622.863)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (164.387 + 1787.889) / 2168.471)||/||(1 - (164.906 + 1677.557) / 2135.773)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(67.127 / (67.127 + 1677.557))||/||(74.412 / (74.412 + 1787.889))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(30.011 / 622.863)||/||(30.421 / 571.094)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((743.37 + 111.821) / 2168.471)||/||((691.586 + 114.247) / 2135.773)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(71.721 - 4.571||-||167.946)||/||2168.471|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Empire District Electric Co has a M-score of -2.75 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Empire District Electric Co Annual Data
Empire District Electric Co Quarterly Data