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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Edgewater Technology Inc was 7757.99. The lowest was -6.78. And the median was -2.24.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Edgewater Technology Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0899||+||0.528 * 1.0792||+||0.404 * 1.4416||+||0.892 * 1.0329||+||0.115 * 0.7798|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9693||+||4.679 * -0.0494||-||0.327 * 1.4791|
* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.
|This Year (Dec15) TTM:||Last Year (Dec14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $27.8 Mil.|
Revenue was 28.415 + 31.184 + 30.527 + 26.578 = $116.7 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9.776 + 11.756 + 10.413 + 7.645 = $39.6 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $40.4 Mil.
Total Assets was $107.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $0.8 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $34.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $25.6 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $5.0 Mil.
Net Income was -4.641 + 1.027 + 0.494 + -0.94 = $-4.1 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.739 + -0.65 + -0.504 + -0.12 = $-2.0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 2.411 + 3.324 + 0.945 + -3.419 = $3.3 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $24.7 Mil.
Revenue was 27.424 + 28.729 + 29.222 + 27.614 = $113.0 Mil.
Gross Profit was 9.957 + 10.416 + 10.886 + 10.107 = $41.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $52.5 Mil.
Total Assets was $93.4 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1.0 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $1.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $34.6 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $18.0 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(27.753 / 116.704)||/||(24.654 / 112.989)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(11.756 / 112.989)||/||(9.776 / 116.704)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (40.438 + 0.824) / 107.424)||/||(1 - (52.475 + 1.029) / 93.413)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(1.142 / (1.142 + 1.029))||/||(1.708 / (1.708 + 0.824))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(34.592 / 116.704)||/||(34.55 / 112.989)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((5 + 25.572) / 107.424)||/||((0 + 17.973) / 93.413)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-4.06 - -2.013||-||3.261)||/||107.424|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Edgewater Technology Inc has a M-score of -2.56 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Edgewater Technology Inc Annual Data
Edgewater Technology Inc Quarterly Data