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Equifax Inc (NYSE:EFX)
Beneish M-Score
-2.73 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Equifax Inc has a M-score of -2.73 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.

EFX' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: -3.91   Max: -2.17
Current: -2.73

-3.91
-2.17

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Equifax Inc was -2.17. The lowest was -3.91. And the median was -2.69.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Equifax Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * 0.9975+0.528 * 0.9948+0.404 * 0.9737+0.892 * 1.0783+0.115 * 0.9945
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * 1.0471+4.679 * -0.0613-0.327 * 1.0318
=-2.73

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Mar15) TTM:Last Year (Mar14) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $363 Mil.
Revenue was 651.8 + 624.6 + 613.4 + 613.9 = $2,504 Mil.
Gross Profit was 436.7 + 410 + 402.4 + 401.6 = $1,651 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $585 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,595 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $304 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $204 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $809 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $791 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,146 Mil.
Net Income was 88.3 + 98 + 92.7 + 92.8 = $372 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.5 + 3 + 3.2 + 0.5 = $6 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 102.9 + 202.8 + 195.6 + 146 = $647 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $337 Mil.
Revenue was 584.5 + 578.5 + 572 + 586.9 = $2,322 Mil.
Gross Profit was 377.7 + 381.3 + 375.2 + 388.7 = $1,523 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $525 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,750 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $291 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $193 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $717 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $795 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,146 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(362.7 / 2503.7) / (337.2 / 2321.9)
=0.1448656 / 0.14522589
=0.9975

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(410 / 2321.9) / (436.7 / 2503.7)
=0.65588527 / 0.65930423
=0.9948

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (585 + 304) / 4595) / (1 - (524.5 + 291) / 4750.1)
=0.80652884 / 0.8283194
=0.9737

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=2503.7 / 2321.9
=1.0783

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(193.1 / (193.1 + 291)) / (203.6 / (203.6 + 304))
=0.39888453 / 0.40110323
=0.9945

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(809.2 / 2503.7) / (716.7 / 2321.9)
=0.32320166 / 0.30866962
=1.0471

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((1145.8 + 790.8) / 4595) / ((1145.6 + 794.6) / 4750.1)
=0.42145811 / 0.40845456
=1.0318

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(371.8 - 6.2 - 647.3) / 4595
=-0.0613

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Equifax Inc has a M-score of -2.73 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Equifax Inc Annual Data

Dec05Dec06Dec07Dec08Dec09Dec10Dec11Dec12Dec13Dec14
DSRI 0.97631.05791.01380.81561.15160.93671.02761.05380.87911.0296
GMI 0.98670.9891.0051.00191.01670.98270.9650.96720.96261.0076
AQI 1.05910.94161.12410.99740.98630.99310.99961.03960.971.016
SGI 1.1341.07131.19191.05030.88651.08361.05391.05781.11141.0575
DEPI 1.05451.01641.0260.93741.05920.92280.99930.98560.92030.9817
SGAI 1.06971.0850.99821.021.03780.99581.05561.12790.95630.993
LVGI 0.75371.01971.15080.95040.90470.90421.00141.22470.85971.0577
TATA -0.0549-0.0636-0.0511-0.0557-0.0537-0.0254-0.0478-0.0511-0.0455-0.0542
M-score -2.55-2.71-2.53-2.86-2.66-2.57-2.66-2.72-2.69-2.66

Equifax Inc Quarterly Data

Dec12Mar13Jun13Sep13Dec13Mar14Jun14Sep14Dec14Mar15
DSRI 1.05380.97370.99140.93530.87910.99821.01871.00011.02960.9975
GMI 0.96720.97060.96880.96920.96260.97640.99020.99681.00760.9948
AQI 1.03961.05531.06191.08280.971.00351.00421.00591.0160.9737
SGI 1.05781.07051.09311.10261.11141.08831.06421.0581.05751.0783
DEPI 0.98560.9530.94540.92590.92030.94550.94480.98560.98170.9945
SGAI 1.12791.1141.11061.08320.95630.94330.92130.9430.9931.0471
LVGI 1.22471.22761.16661.13220.85970.94550.96871.01311.05771.0318
TATA -0.0511-0.0497-0.0441-0.0476-0.0455-0.0478-0.0485-0.0523-0.0542-0.0613
M-score -2.72-2.77-2.68-2.72-2.69-2.62-2.62-2.67-2.66-2.73
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