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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of The Estee Lauder Companies Inc was -2.04. The lowest was -3.23. And the median was -2.65.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of The Estee Lauder Companies Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0342||+||0.528 * 0.9979||+||0.404 * 1.2364||+||0.892 * 1.0145||+||0.115 * 1.0373|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0102||+||4.679 * -0.0794||-||0.327 * 1.0879|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,417 Mil.|
Revenue was 2656.5 + 3124.8 + 2834.7 + 2524.4 = $11,140 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2152.3 + 2535.8 + 2257.5 + 2036.4 = $8,982 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,252 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,816 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,511 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $416 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7,253 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,434 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,613 Mil.
Net Income was 265.6 + 446.2 + 309.3 + 153 = $1,174 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = $0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 353.9 + 954.1 + 8.2 + 558.3 = $1,875 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,350 Mil.
Revenue was 2580.5 + 3044.5 + 2631 + 2725.3 = $10,981 Mil.
Gross Profit was 2077.6 + 2471.4 + 2094.4 + 2191.5 = $8,835 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $4,429 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,095 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,398 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $403 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $7,077 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $2,097 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,318 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1416.6 / 11140.4)||/||(1350.2 / 10981.3)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(8834.9 / 10981.3)||/||(8982 / 11140.4)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (4252.3 + 1510.5) / 8816.3)||/||(1 - (4429.2 + 1398.2) / 8095.1)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(403.2 / (403.2 + 1398.2))||/||(415.6 / (415.6 + 1510.5))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(7253.4 / 11140.4)||/||(7077.4 / 10981.3)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1612.5 + 2433.7) / 8816.3)||/||((1317.5 + 2097.4) / 8095.1)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1174.1 - 0||-||1874.5)||/||8816.3|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
The Estee Lauder Companies Inc has a M-score of -2.74 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
The Estee Lauder Companies Inc Annual Data
The Estee Lauder Companies Inc Quarterly Data