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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of EarthLink Holdings Corp was 1.06. The lowest was -5.98. And the median was -2.93.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of EarthLink Holdings Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.8552||+||0.528 * 0.9463||+||0.404 * 0.8796||+||0.892 * 0.9529||+||0.115 * 0.9398|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9803||+||4.679 * -0.2371||-||0.327 * 1.0562|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $86 Mil.|
Revenue was 283.664 + 282.447 + 284.472 + 297.745 = $1,148 Mil.
Gross Profit was 156.616 + 152.985 + 152.795 + 162.05 = $624 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $203 Mil.
Total Assets was $799 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $382 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $189 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $398 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $157 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $567 Mil.
Net Income was -9.922 + -10.483 + -22.492 + -1.952 = $-45 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -6.77 + -1.432 + -0.021 + -0.013 = $-8 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 33.262 + 18.865 + 38.657 + 62.063 = $153 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $105 Mil.
Revenue was 297.358 + 297.32 + 301.839 + 308.578 = $1,205 Mil.
Gross Profit was 153.17 + 151.444 + 151.661 + 163.818 = $620 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $236 Mil.
Total Assets was $938 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $416 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $188 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $426 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $198 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $607 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(85.524 / 1148.328)||/||(104.947 / 1205.095)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(152.985 / 1205.095)||/||(156.616 / 1148.328)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (202.711 + 382.256) / 799.065)||/||(1 - (236.461 + 415.707) / 937.841)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(187.959 / (187.959 + 415.707))||/||(189.389 / (189.389 + 382.256))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(397.544 / 1148.328)||/||(425.594 / 1205.095)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((566.961 + 157.14) / 799.065)||/||((606.536 + 198.104) / 937.841)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-44.849 - -8.236||-||152.847)||/||799.065|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
EarthLink Holdings Corp has a M-score of -3.86 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
EarthLink Holdings Corp Annual Data
EarthLink Holdings Corp Quarterly Data