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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Electro Rent Corp was -0.80. The lowest was -4.28. And the median was -3.22.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Electro Rent Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9798||+||0.528 * 1.0554||+||0.404 * 0.9047||+||0.892 * 0.9884||+||0.115 * 1.0209|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0185||+||4.679 * -0.1285||-||0.327 * 1.0233|
|This Year (May15) TTM:||Last Year (May14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $33.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 60.413 + 56.342 + 59.703 + 61.871 = $238.3 Mil.
Gross Profit was 34.596 + 32.2 + 35.495 + 36.395 = $138.7 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $37.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $300.3 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $244.9 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $57.6 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $59.3 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $72.3 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
Net Income was 3.441 + 2.425 + 4.795 + 4.771 = $15.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + 0 + 1.39 + 0 = $1.4 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 13.123 + 16.5 + 10.564 + 12.432 = $52.6 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $35.0 Mil.
Revenue was 61.077 + 62.016 + 57.876 + 60.168 = $241.1 Mil.
Gross Profit was 36.936 + 35.94 + 37.379 + 37.838 = $148.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $40.9 Mil.
Total Assets was $302.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $241.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $58.3 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $58.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $71.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(33.863 / 238.329)||/||(34.97 / 241.137)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(32.2 / 241.137)||/||(34.596 / 238.329)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (37.927 + 244.872) / 300.314)||/||(1 - (40.916 + 241.669) / 302.058)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(58.286 / (58.286 + 241.669))||/||(57.562 / (57.562 + 244.872))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(59.313 / 238.329)||/||(58.92 / 241.137)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 72.336) / 300.314)||/||((0 + 71.1) / 302.058)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(15.432 - 1.39||-||52.619)||/||300.314|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Electro Rent Corp has a M-score of -3.13 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Electro Rent Corp Annual Data
Electro Rent Corp Quarterly Data