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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Eastman Chemical Co was -1.04. The lowest was -3.62. And the median was -2.71.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Eastman Chemical Co for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9755||+||0.528 * 0.8714||+||0.404 * 0.9952||+||0.892 * 0.9768||+||0.115 * 0.9006|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 1.0211||+||4.679 * -0.04||-||0.327 * 0.9418|
|This Year (Mar16) TTM:||Last Year (Mar15) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $951 Mil.|
Revenue was 2236 + 2225 + 2447 + 2533 = $9,441 Mil.
Gross Profit was 634 + 509 + 695 + 720 = $2,558 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,863 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,616 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $5,185 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $573 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $765 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,847 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,565 Mil.
Net Income was 251 + 124 + 256 + 297 = $928 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -12 + 10 + -13 + 0 = $-15 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 47 + 562 + 368 + 591 = $1,568 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $998 Mil.
Revenue was 2443 + 2349 + 2413 + 2460 = $9,665 Mil.
Gross Profit was 656 + 333 + 636 + 657 = $2,282 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $3,166 Mil.
Total Assets was $15,834 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $4,957 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $488 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $767 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,764 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $7,293 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(951 / 9441)||/||(998 / 9665)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(509 / 9665)||/||(634 / 9441)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2863 + 5185) / 15616)||/||(1 - (3166 + 4957) / 15834)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(488 / (488 + 4957))||/||(573 / (573 + 5185))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(765 / 9441)||/||(767 / 9665)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((6565 + 1847) / 15616)||/||((7293 + 1764) / 15834)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(928 - -15||-||1568)||/||15616|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Eastman Chemical Co has a M-score of -2.78 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Eastman Chemical Co Annual Data
Eastman Chemical Co Quarterly Data