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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 7 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of ExamWorks Group Inc was -2.40. The lowest was -2.77. And the median was -2.54.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of ExamWorks Group Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.9263||+||0.528 * 0.9976||+||0.404 * 0.873||+||0.892 * 1.1918||+||0.115 * 1.0659|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9697||+||4.679 * -0.0196||-||0.327 * 0.979|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $223.9 Mil.|
Revenue was 208.738 + 196.316 + 202.064 + 204.078 = $811.2 Mil.
Gross Profit was 72.313 + 68.14 + 71.509 + 73.481 = $285.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $347.8 Mil.
Total Assets was $1,061.2 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $17.5 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $59.7 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $173.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $133.7 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $541.7 Mil.
Net Income was -7.863 + 2.024 + 3.836 + 3.415 = $1.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -18.619 + 0 + 0.379 + 0.006 = $-18.2 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 7.887 + 6.164 + 20.238 + 6.206 = $40.5 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $202.8 Mil.
Revenue was 196.445 + 173.028 + 158.811 + 152.354 = $680.6 Mil.
Gross Profit was 71.594 + 61.993 + 53.815 + 51.523 = $238.9 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $223.6 Mil.
Total Assets was $949.7 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $12.7 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $59.8 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $149.7 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $180.4 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $437.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(223.903 / 811.196)||/||(202.815 / 680.638)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(68.14 / 680.638)||/||(72.313 / 811.196)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (347.842 + 17.485) / 1061.185)||/||(1 - (223.643 + 12.747) / 949.692)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(59.8 / (59.8 + 12.747))||/||(59.657 / (59.657 + 17.485))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(172.952 / 811.196)||/||(149.655 / 680.638)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((541.73 + 133.723) / 1061.185)||/||((437.022 + 180.425) / 949.692)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(1.412 - -18.234||-||40.495)||/||1061.185|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
ExamWorks Group Inc has a M-score of -2.50 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
ExamWorks Group Inc Annual Data
ExamWorks Group Inc Quarterly Data