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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Exar Corp was 4.06. The lowest was -4.22. And the median was -2.66.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of Exar Corp for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 0.6872||+||0.528 * 1.1382||+||0.404 * 1.2236||+||0.892 * 1.3917||+||0.115 * 0.8767|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.8808||+||4.679 * -0.1107||-||0.327 * 0.6371|
|This Year (Jun15) TTM:||Last Year (Jun14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $25.4 Mil.|
Revenue was 40.422 + 43.857 + 44.315 + 43.159 = $171.8 Mil.
Gross Profit was 17.437 + 17.948 + 16.89 + 4.132 = $56.4 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $119.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $279.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $24.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $20.1 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $44.0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $48.5 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4.6 Mil.
Net Income was -2.51 + -2.914 + -6.599 + -23.352 = $-35.4 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 0 + -0.544 + 0 + 0 = $-0.5 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 1.562 + 2.37 + -5.914 + -1.96 = $-3.9 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $26.6 Mil.
Revenue was 30.719 + 27.987 + 30.69 + 34.018 = $123.4 Mil.
Gross Profit was 10.956 + 8.422 + 12.826 + 13.929 = $46.1 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $216.0 Mil.
Total Assets was $392.1 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $20.6 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $13.4 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $35.9 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $117.1 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0.0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(25.434 / 171.753)||/||(26.596 / 123.414)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(17.948 / 123.414)||/||(17.437 / 171.753)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (119.041 + 24.637) / 279.102)||/||(1 - (215.986 + 20.644) / 392.136)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(13.406 / (13.406 + 20.644))||/||(20.083 / (20.083 + 24.637))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(43.98 / 171.753)||/||(35.879 / 123.414)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((4.629 + 48.49) / 279.102)||/||((0.04 + 117.11) / 392.136)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(-35.375 - -0.544||-||-3.942)||/||279.102|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
Exar Corp has a M-score of -2.65 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
Exar Corp Annual Data
Exar Corp Quarterly Data