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Forest City Enterprises Inc (NYSE:FCE.A)
Beneish M-Score
0.00 (As of Today)

The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.

Forest City Enterprises Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is a manipulator.

FCE.A' s 10-Year Beneish M-Score Range
Min: 0   Max: 0
Current: 0

During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of Forest City Enterprises Inc was 0.00. The lowest was 0.00. And the median was 0.00.


Definition

The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.

The M-Score Variables:

The M-score of Forest City Enterprises Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:

M=-4.84+0.92 * DSRI+0.528 * GMI+0.404 * AQI+0.892 * SGI+0.115 * DEPI
=-4.84+0.92 * +0.528 * +0.404 * +0.892 * +0.115 *
-0.172 * SGAI+4.679 * TATA-0.327 * LVGI
-0.172 * +4.679 * -0.327 *
=

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

This Year (Sep14) TTM:Last Year (Jul13) TTM:
Accounts Receivable was $443 Mil.
Revenue was 234.743 + 229.637 + 251.187 + 266.227 = $982 Mil.
Gross Profit was 98.352 + 93.889 + 80.084 + 55.972 = $328 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $866 Mil.
Total Assets was $8,209 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $6,342 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $253 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $24 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,250 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $4,716 Mil.
Net Income was 0.686 + -92.992 + 15.52 + 153.329 = $77 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -2.269 + -22.072 + -2.756 + 475.818 = $449 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 66.029 + 75.279 + 19.921 + 9.93 = $171 Mil.
Accounts Receivable was $443 Mil.
Revenue was 291.762 + 305.615 + 269.966 + 291.62 = $1,159 Mil.
Gross Profit was 100.358 + 97.811 + 85.699 + 82.606 = $366 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,247 Mil.
Total Assets was $10,728 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $8,431 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $300 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $0 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,724 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $6,815 Mil.



1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index

Measured as the ratio of days’ sales in receivables in year t to year t-1.

A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.

DSRI=(Receivables_t / Revenue_t) / (Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)
=(442.624 / 981.794) / (442.947 / 1158.963)
=0.45083184 / 0.38219253
=

2. GMI = Gross Margin Index

Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.

Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.

GMI=GrossMargin_t-1 / GrossMargin_t
=(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1) / (GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)
=(93.889 / 1158.963) / (98.352 / 981.794)
=0.31620854 / 0.33438481
=

3. AQI = Asset Quality Index

AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.

Asset quality is measured as the ratio of non-current assets other than plant, property and equipment to total assets.

AQI=(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t) / (1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=(1 - (865.671 + 6342.024) / 8208.93) / (1 - (1246.858 + 8431.328) / 10728.101)
=0.121969 / 0.09786588
=

4. SGI = Sales Growth Index

Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.

Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.

SGI=Sales_t / Sales_t-1
=Revenue_t / Revenue_t-1
=981.794 / 1158.963
=

5. DEPI = Depreciation Index

Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.

DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.

DEPI=(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1)) / (Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))
=(300.471 / (300.471 + 8431.328)) / (252.924 / (252.924 + 6342.024))
=0.03441112 / 0.03835117
=

6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index

The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.

SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.

SGAI=(SGA_t / Sales_t) / (SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)
=(23.822 / 981.794) / (0 / 1158.963)
=0.02426375 / 0
=

7. LVGI = Leverage Index

The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.

An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage

LVGI=((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t) / ((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)
=((4716.396 + 1250.018) / 8208.93) / ((6815.21 + 1723.849) / 10728.101)
=0.72681994 / 0.79595252
=

8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets

Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.

TATA=(IncomefromContinuingOperations_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t - CashFlowsfromOperations_t) / TotalAssets_t
=(76.543 - 448.721 - 171.159) / 8208.93
=-0.0662

An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.

Forest City Enterprises Inc has a M-score of signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.


Related Terms

Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations


Historical Data

* All numbers are in millions except for per share data and ratio. All numbers are in their own currency.

Forest City Enterprises Inc Annual Data

Jan04Jan05Jan06Jan07Jan08Jan09Jan10Jan11Jan12Jan13
DSRI
GMI
AQI
SGI
DEPI
SGAI
LVGI
TATA
M-score

Forest City Enterprises Inc Quarterly Data

Jul12Oct12Jan13Mar13Apr13Jul13Oct13Mar14Jun14Sep14
DSRI
GMI
AQI
SGI
DEPI
SGAI
LVGI
TATA
M-score
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