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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of F5 Networks Inc was -0.46. The lowest was -4.04. And the median was -2.81.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of F5 Networks Inc for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.0166||+||0.528 * 0.9995||+||0.404 * 0.9298||+||0.892 * 1.156||+||0.115 * 0.9766|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9784||+||4.679 * -0.1341||-||0.327 * 1.1381|
|This Year (Mar15) TTM:||Last Year (Mar14) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $263 Mil.|
Revenue was 472.143 + 462.793 + 465.266 + 440.285 = $1,840 Mil.
Gross Profit was 389.547 + 383.445 + 383.314 + 360.823 = $1,517 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $1,052 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,221 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $69 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $50 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $701 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $698 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
Net Income was 85.729 + 89.076 + 94.021 + 79.473 = $348 Mil.
Non Operating Income was 3.266 + 2.594 + 2.323 + 1.193 = $9 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was 142.296 + 186.395 + 169.865 + 138.234 = $637 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $223 Mil.
Revenue was 420.043 + 406.452 + 395.329 + 370.302 = $1,592 Mil.
Gross Profit was 344.381 + 333.569 + 328.386 + 305.385 = $1,312 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $950 Mil.
Total Assets was $2,166 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $62 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $43 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $620 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $598 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $0 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(262.624 / 1840.487)||/||(223.472 / 1592.126)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(383.445 / 1592.126)||/||(389.547 / 1840.487)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (1052.124 + 68.746) / 2221.279)||/||(1 - (950.419 + 61.608) / 2166.2)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(42.77 / (42.77 + 61.608))||/||(49.697 / (49.697 + 68.746))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(701.391 / 1840.487)||/||(620.169 / 1592.126)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((0 + 697.726) / 2221.279)||/||((0 + 597.843) / 2166.2)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(348.299 - 9.376||-||636.79)||/||2221.279|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
F5 Networks Inc has a M-score of -3.03 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
F5 Networks Inc Annual Data
F5 Networks Inc Quarterly Data