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The zones of discrimination for M-Score is as such:
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company is not an accounting manipulator.
An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely an accounting manipulator.
FMC Corporation has a M-score of -2.32 suggests that the company is not a manipulator.
During the past 13 years, the highest Beneish M-Score of FMC Corporation was -2.03. The lowest was -3.15. And the median was -2.50.
The M-score was created by Professor Messod Beneish. Instead of measuring the bankruptcy risk (Z-Score) or business trend (F-Score), M-score can be used to detect the risk of earnings manipulation. This is the original research paper on M-score.
The M-Score Variables:
The M-score of FMC Corporation for today is based on a combination of the following eight different indices:
|M||=||-4.84||+||0.92 * DSRI||+||0.528 * GMI||+||0.404 * AQI||+||0.892 * SGI||+||0.115 * DEPI|
|=||-4.84||+||0.92 * 1.2395||+||0.528 * 1.0715||+||0.404 * 0.7044||+||0.892 * 1.1268||+||0.115 * 1.169|
|-||0.172 * SGAI||+||4.679 * TATA||-||0.327 * LVGI|
|-||0.172 * 0.9367||+||4.679 * -0.0066||-||0.327 * 1.277|
|This Year (Dec13) TTM:||Last Year (Dec12) TTM:|
|Accounts Receivable was $1,565 Mil.|
Revenue was 1130.7 + 957.4 + 959.4 + 990.2 = $4,038 Mil.
Gross Profit was 354.9 + 304.4 + 342.9 + 369.7 = $1,372 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,945 Mil.
Total Assets was $5,235 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $1,248 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $127 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $537 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,987 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $1,187 Mil.
Net Income was 27.1 + 17.9 + 118 + 130.9 = $294 Mil.
Non Operating Income was -0.4 + -0.1 + -0.2 + 0.5 = $-0 Mil.
Cash Flow from Operations was -20.5 + 116.1 + 277.6 + -44.5 = $329 Mil.
|Accounts Receivable was $1,121 Mil.
Revenue was 915.5 + 821.9 + 905.2 + 940.7 = $3,583 Mil.
Gross Profit was 321.5 + 298 + 337.8 + 347.3 = $1,305 Mil.
Total Current Assets was $2,182 Mil.
Total Assets was $4,374 Mil.
Property, Plant and Equipment(Net PPE) was $956 Mil.
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization(DDA) was $116 Mil.
Selling, General & Admin. Expense(SGA) was $509 Mil.
Total Current Liabilities was $1,136 Mil.
Long-Term Debt was $941 Mil.
1. DSRI = Days Sales in Receivables Index
A large increase in DSR could be indicative of revenue inflation.
|DSRI||=||(Receivables_t / Revenue_t)||/||(Receivables_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)|
|=||(1565.3 / 4037.7)||/||(1120.7 / 3583.3)|
2. GMI = Gross Margin Index
Measured as the ratio of gross margin in year t-1 to gross margin in year t.
Gross margin has deteriorated when this index is above 1. A firm with poorer prospects is more likely to manipulate earnings.
|=||(GrossProfit_t-1 / Revenue_t-1)||/||(GrossProfit_t / Revenue_t)|
|=||(304.4 / 3583.3)||/||(354.9 / 4037.7)|
3. AQI = Asset Quality Index
AQI is the ratio of asset quality in year t to year t-1.
|AQI||=||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t + PPE_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||(1 - (CurrentAssets_t-1 + PPE_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||(1 - (2945 + 1248.3) / 5235.2)||/||(1 - (2181.9 + 956.2) / 4373.9)|
4. SGI = Sales Growth Index
Ratio of sales in year t to sales in year t-1.
Sales growth is not itself a measure of manipulation. However, growth companies are likely to find themselves under pressure to manipulate in order to keep up appearances.
5. DEPI = Depreciation Index
Measured as the ratio of the rate of depreciation in year t-1 to the corresponding rate in year t.
DEPI greater than 1 indicates that assets are being depreciated at a slower rate. This suggests that the firm might be revising useful asset life assumptions upwards, or adopting a new method that is income friendly.
|DEPI||=||(Depreciation_t-1 / (Depreciaton_t-1 + PPE_t-1))||/||(Depreciation_t / (Depreciaton_t + PPE_t))|
|=||(115.9 / (115.9 + 956.2))||/||(127.2 / (127.2 + 1248.3))|
6. SGAI = Sales, General and Administrative expenses Index
The ratio of SGA expenses in year t relative to year t-1.
SGA expenses index > 1 means that the company is becoming less efficient in generate sales.
|SGAI||=||(SGA_t / Sales_t)||/||(SGA_t-1 /Sales_t-1)|
|=||(536.7 / 4037.7)||/||(508.5 / 3583.3)|
7. LVGI = Leverage Index
The ratio of total debt to total assets in year t relative to yeat t-1.
An LVGI > 1 indicates an increase$sgai= in leverage
|LVGI||=||((LTD_t + CurrentLiabilities_t) / TotalAssets_t)||/||((LTD_t-1 + CurrentLiabilities_t-1) / TotalAssets_t-1)|
|=||((1186.5 + 1986.7) / 5235.2)||/||((940.6 + 1135.5) / 4373.9)|
8. TATA = Total Accruals to Total Assets
Total accruals calculated as the change in working capital accounts other than cash less depreciation.
|=||(NetIncome_t - NonOperatingIncome_t||-||CashFlowsfromOperations_t)||/||TotalAssets_t|
|=||(293.9 - -0.2||-||328.7)||/||5235.2|
An M-Score of less than -2.22 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator. An M-Score of greater than -2.22 signals that the company is likely to be a manipulator.
FMC Corporation has a M-score of -2.32 suggests that the company will not be a manipulator.
Altman Z-Score, Piotroski F-Score, Accounts Receivable, Revenue, Gross Profit, Total Current Assets, Total Assets, Property, Plant and Equipment, Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization, Selling, General & Admin. Expense, Total Current Liabilities, Long-Term Debt, Net Income, Non Operating Income, Cash Flow from Operations
FMC Corporation Annual Data
FMC Corporation Quarterly Data